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Auteur Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Lasram, F.B.; Mouillot, D.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) 'Low-hanging fruit' for conservation of marine vertebrate species at risk in the Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Frontiers in Microbiology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 24 Numéro 2 Pages 226-239  
  Mots-Clés Conservation priorities; cumulative threats; IUCN diversities; marine biodiversity; Marine Protected Areas; Mediterranean Sea  
  Résumé AimConservation priorities need to take the feasibility of protection measures into account. In times of economic pressure it is essential to identify the low-hanging fruit' for conservation: areas where human impacts are lower and biological diversity is still high, and thus conservation is more feasible. LocationWe used the Mediterranean large marine ecosystem (LME) as a case study to identify the overlapping areas of low threats and high diversity of vertebrate species at risk. MethodsThis LME is the first in the world to have a complete regional IUCN Red List assessment of the native marine fish. We augmented these data with distributions of marine mammals, marine turtles and seabirds at risk, and we calculated the spatial distributions of species at risk (IUCN densities). Using cumulative threats we identified priority areas for conservation of species at risk' (PACS), where IUCN diversities are high and threats are low. We assessed whether IUCN diversities and PACS were spatially congruent among taxa and we quantified whether PACS corresponded to current and proposed protected areas. ResultsIUCN densities and PACS were not highly correlated spatially among taxa. Continental shelves and deep-sea slopes of the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean and Tunisian Plateau/Gulf of Sidra are identified as relevant for fish species at risk. The eastern side of the western Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea are identified as most relevant for endemic fish, and shelf and open sea areas distributed through the LME are most important for marine mammals and turtles at risk, while specific locations of the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean and Levantine seas are highlighted for seabirds. Main conclusionsLarge parts of the areas of PACS fell outside current or proposed frameworks to be prioritized for conservation. PACS may be suitable candidates for contributing to the 10% protection target for the Mediterranean Sea by 2020.  
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  ISSN ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1102  
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Auteur Monsarrat, S.; Pennino, M.G.; Smith, T.D.; Reeves, R.R.; Meynard, C.N.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rodrigues, A.S.L. doi  openurl
  Titre (up) A spatially explicit estimate of the prewhaling abundance of the endangered North Atlantic right whale Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Conserv. Biol.  
  Volume 30 Numéro 4 Pages 783-791  
  Mots-Clés animals; areas de alimentacion; caza de ballenas; Conservation; Eubalaena; eubalaena-glacialis; feeding grounds; generalized additive modeling; historical baseline; historical data; linea base historica; modelado aditivo generalizado; models; pacific; population size; records; tamano de poblacion; target; whaling  
  Résumé The North Atlantic right whale (NARW) (Eubalaena glacialis) is one of the world's most threatened whales. It came close to extinction after nearly a millennium of exploitation and currently persists as a population of only approximately 500 individuals. Setting appropriate conservation targets for this species requires an understanding of its historical population size, as a baseline for measuring levels of depletion and progress toward recovery. This is made difficult by the scarcity of records over this species' long whaling history. We sought to estimate the preexploitation population size of the North Atlantic right whale and understand how this species was distributed across its range. We used a spatially explicit data set on historical catches of North Pacific right whales (NPRWs) (Eubalaena japonica) to model the relationship between right whale relative density and the environment during the summer feeding season. Assuming the 2 right whale species select similar environments, we projected this model to the North Atlantic to predict how the relative abundance of NARWs varied across their range. We calibrated these relative abundances with estimates of the NPRW total prewhaling population size to obtain high and low estimates for the overall NARW population size prior to exploitation. The model predicted 9,075-21,328 right whales in the North Atlantic. The current NARW population is thus <6% of the historical North Atlantic carrying capacity and has enormous potential for recovery. According to the model, in June-September NARWs concentrated in 2 main feeding areas: east of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and in the Norwegian Sea. These 2 areas may become important in the future as feeding grounds and may already be used more regularly by this endangered species than is thought. Una Estimacion Espacialmente Explicita de la Abundancia Previa a la Caza de la Ballena Franca del Atlantico Norte en Peligro de Extincion La ballena franca del Atlantico Norte (BFAN) (Eubalaena glacialis) es una de las ballenas mas amenazadas del mundo. Su extincion estuvo proxima despues de casi un milenio de explotacion y actualmente persiste una poblacion de aproximadamente 500 individuos. El establecimiento de objetivos de conservacion apropiados para esta especie requiere del entendimiento del tamano historico de la poblacion como la linea base para la medida de los niveles de disminucion y el progreso hacia la recuperacion. Esto se dificulta por la escasez de registros sobre la larga historia de la caza de esta especie. Buscamos estimar el tamano poblacional previo a la explotacion de la ballena franca del Atlantico Norte y entender como se distribuia esta especie a lo largo de su extension. Usamos un conjunto de datos espacialmente explicitos sobre las capturas historicas de las ballenas francas del Pacifico Norte (BFPN) (Eubalaena japonica) para modelar la relacion entre la densidad relativa de ballenas francas y el ambiente durante la temporada de verano de alimentacion. Cuando asumimos que las dos especies de ballenas francas seleccionan ambientes similares, pudimos proyectar este modelo hacia el Atlantico Norte y asi poder predecir como la abundancia relativa de las BFAN vario a lo largo de su extension. Calibramos estas abundancias relativas con los estimados del tamano poblacional total previo a la caza de las BFPN y asi obtener estimados altos y bajos para el tamano poblacional general de las BFAN previo a la explotacion. El modelo predijo la existencia de 9, 075 – 21, 328 ballenas francas en el Atlantico Norte. La poblacion actual de BFAN es entonces <6 % a la capacidad de carga historica del Atlantico Norte, por lo que tiene un potencial enorme para la recuperacion. De acuerdo al modelo, entre junio y septiembre, las BFAN se concentraron en dos areas de alimentacion principales: al este de los Grandes Bancos de Terranova y en el Mar de Noruega. Estas dos areas pueden volverse importantes en el futuro como sitios de alimentacion y puede que ya sean usadas por esta especie de manera mas regular de lo que se cree. Resumen  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0888-8892 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1641  
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Auteur Sheehan, E.V.; Vaz, S.; Pettifer, E.; Foster, N.L.; Nancollas, S.J.; Cousens, S.; Holmes, L.; Facq, J.-V.; Germain, G.; Attrill, M.J. doi  openurl
  Titre (up) An experimental comparison of three towed underwater video systems using species metrics, benthic impact and performance Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Methods Ecol. Evol.  
  Volume 7 Numéro 7 Pages 843-852  
  Mots-Clés biodiversity; Conservation; environmental management; management; marine protected area; marine protected areas; meta-analyses; range; sampling impact; sea; towed video; underwater imagery  
  Résumé Managing ecological systems, which operate over large spatial scales, is inherently difficult and often requires sourcing data from different countries and organizations. The assumption might be made that data collected using similar methodologies are comparable, but this is rarely tested. Here, benthic video data recorded using different towed underwater video systems (TUVSs) were experimentally compared. Three technically different TUVSs were compared on different seabed types (rocky, mixed ground and sandy) in Kingmere Marine Conservation Zone, off the south coast of England. For each TUVS, species metrics (forward facing camera), seabed impact (backward facing camera) and operational performance (strengths and limitations of equipment and video footage) were compared with the aim of providing recommendations on their future use and comparability of data between different systems. Statistically significant differences between species richness, density, cover and assemblage composition were detected amongst devices and were believed to be mostly due to their optical specifications. As a result of their high image definition and large field of vision both the benthic contacting heavy and benthic tending TUVS provided good quality footage and ecological measurements. However, the heaviest TUVS proved difficult to operate on irregular ground and was found to cause the most impact to the seabed. The lightest TUVS (benthic contacting light) struggled to maintain contact with the seabed. The benthic tending TUVS was able to fly over variable seabed relief and was comparably the least destructive. Results from this study highlight that particular care should be given to sled and optic specifications when developing a medium- or long-term marine protected area monitoring programme. Furthermore, when using data gathered from multiple sources to test ecological questions, different equipment specifications may confound observed ecological differences. A benthic tending TUVS is recommended for benthic surveys over variable habitat types, particularly in sensitive areas, such as marine protected areas.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 2041-210x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1645  
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Auteur Ban, N.C.; Maxwell, S.M.; Dunn, D.C.; Hobday, A.J.; Bax, N.J.; Ardron, J.; Gjerde, K.M.; Game, E.T.; Devillers, R.; Kaplan, D.M.; Dunstan, P.K.; Halpin, P.N.; Pressey, R.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) Better integration of sectoral planning and management approaches for the interlinked ecology of the open oceans Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés Areas beyond national jurisdiction; Benthic-pelagic interlinkages; High seas; marine conservation; Marine Protected Areas; sustainable fisheries  
  Résumé Open oceans are one of the least protected, least studied and most inadequately managed ecosystems on Earth. Three themes were investigated that differentiate the open ocean (areas beyond national jurisdiction and deep area within exclusive economic zones) from other realms and must be considered when developing planning and management options: ecosystem interactions, especially between benthic and pelagic systems; potential effects of human activities in open oceans on ecological linkages; and policy context and options. A number of key ecological factors differentiate open oceans from coastal systems for planners and managers: (1) many species are widely distributed and, especially for those at higher trophic levels, wide ranging; (2) the sizes and boundaries of biogeographical domains (patterns of co-occurrence of species, habitats and ecosystem processes) vary significantly by depth; (3) habitat types exhibit a wide range of stabilities, from ephemeral (e.g., surface frontal systems) to hyper-stable (e.g., deep sea); and (4) vertical and horizontal linkages are prevalent. Together, these ecological attributes point to interconnectedness between open ocean habitats across large spatial scales. Indeed, human activities – especially fishing, shipping, and potentially deep-sea mining and oil and gas extraction – have effects far beyond the parts of the ocean in which they operate. While managing open oceans in an integrated fashion will be challenging, the ecological characteristics of the system demand it. A promising avenue forward is to integrate aspects of marine spatial planning (MSP), systematic conservation planning (SCP), and adaptive management. These three approaches to planning and management need to be integrated to meet the unique needs of open ocean systems, with MSP providing the means to meet a diversity of stakeholder needs, SCP providing the structured process to determine and prioritise those needs and appropriate responses, and adaptive management providing rigorous monitoring and evaluation to determine whether actions or their modifications meet both ecological and defined stakeholder needs. The flexibility of MSP will be enhanced by the systematic approach of SCP, while the rigorous monitoring of adaptive management will enable continued improvement as new information becomes available and further experience is gained.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium  
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  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 317  
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Auteur Espinosa, F.; Rivera-Ingraham, G.A. doi  isbn
openurl 
  Titre (up) Biological Conservation of Giant Limpets: The Implications of Large Size Type Chapitre de livre
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée  
  Volume Numéro Pages 105-155  
  Mots-Clés cymbula-nigra gastropoda; endangered limpet; lottia-gigantea; marine protected areas; mussel mytilus-galloprovincialis; patella-ferruginea gastropoda; population-structure; scutellastra-argenvillei; sex-change; south-african limpet  
  Résumé Patellogastropods, also known as true limpets, are distributed throughout the world and constitute key species in coastal ecosystems. Some limpet species achieve remarkable sizes, which in the most extreme cases can surpass 35 cm in shell length. In this review, we focus on giant limpets, which are defined as those with a maximum shell size surpassing 10 cm. According to the scientific literature, there are a total of 14 species across five genera that reach these larger sizes. Four of these species are threatened or in danger of extinction. Inhabiting the intertidal zones, limpets are frequently affected by anthropogenic impacts, namely collection by humans, pollution and habitat fragmentation. In the case of larger species, their conspicuous size has made them especially prone to human collection since prehistoric times. Size is not phylogeny-dependent among giant limpets, but is instead related to behavioural traits instead. Larger-sized species tend to be nonmigratory and territorial compared to those that are smaller. Collection by humans has been cited as the main cause behind the decline and/or extinction of giant limpet populations. Their conspicuously large size makes them the preferred target of human collection. Because they are protandric species, selectively eliminating larger specimens of a given population seriously compromises their viability and has led to local extinction events in some cases. Additionally, sustained collection over time may lead to microevolutionary responses that result in genetic changes. The growing presence of artificial structures in coastal ecosystems may cause population fragmentation and isolation, limiting the genetic flow and dispersion capacity of many limpet species. However, when they are necessitated, artificial structures could be managed to establish marine artificial microreserves and contribute to the conservation of giant limpet species that naturally settle on them.  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Elsevier Academic Press Inc Lieu de Publication San Diego Éditeur Curry, B.E.  
  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé Advances in Marine Biology, Vol 76  
  Volume de collection 76 Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-0-12-812402-4 978-0-12-812401-7 Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2180  
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