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Auteur Marinesque, S.; Kaplan, D.; Rodwell, L.D.
Titre Global implementation of marine protected areas : is the developing world being left behind ? Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume 36 Numéro 3 Pages (down) 727-737
Mots-Clés Conservation targets; Developing world; Gap analysis; International policy; Marine protected areas (MPAs); Meta-analysis
Résumé While the global network of marine protected areas (MPAs) has recently been evaluated in the light of bio-geographic targets, there has been no attempt to evaluate the relative conservation efforts made by the different nations with regards to their level of socio-economic development. Using information mostly gathered from the world database on protected areas (WDPA), this paper gives a comparative assessment of MPA progress in countries from different economic categories, ranging from advanced economies to least developed countries (LDCs). Potentially explanatory socio-economic and environmental factors, such as fishing activity and existence of vulnerable marine ecosystems, for variability between nations in the level of MPA implementation are also explored. Existing MPA databases demonstrate a clear gap between developed and developing nations in MPA establishment, with advanced economies accounting for two thirds of the global MPA network. Patterns of MPA use, however, remain extremely heterogeneous between countries within each development group. International agreements on marine conservation, above and beyond the influence of country socioeconomic and environmental profiles, are identified as a stimulating factor to MPA implementation. The level dependence on marine resource extraction appears to impede MPA implementation, though the relationship is not statistically significant due to large heterogeneity among countries. Leading developed nations increasingly use MPAs to designate integrated and adaptive management areas, and implementation of large “no-take” reserves in relatively-pristine overseas areas continues to accelerate. These analyses highlight certain limitations regarding our ability to assess the true conservation effectiveness of the existing global MPA network and the need for improved indicators of MPA restrictions and management efforts.
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ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 204
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Auteur Gruss, A.; Kaplan, D.; Guenette, S.; Roberts, C.M.; Botsford, L.W.
Titre Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas Type Article scientifique
Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation
Volume 144 Numéro Pages (down) 692-702
Mots-Clés areas; Density-dependent; Density-independent; Dynamic; marine; movement; (MPAs); MPAs; protected; Spillover; Targeted
Résumé Adult and juvenile mobility has a considerable influence on the functioning of marine protected areas. It is recognized that adult and juvenile movement reduces the core benefits of protected areas, namely protecting the full age-structure of marine populations, while at the same time perhaps improving fisheries yield over the no-reserve situation through export of individuals from protected areas. Nevertheless, the study of the consequences of movement on protected area functioning is unbalanced. Significant attention has been paid to the influence of certain movement patterns, such as diffusive movement and home ranges, while the impacts of others, such as density-dependent movements and ontogenetic migrations, have been relatively ignored. Here we review the diversity of density-independent and density-dependent movement patterns, as well as what is currently known about their consequences for the conservation and fisheries effects of marine protected areas. We highlight a number of 'partially addressed' issues in marine protected area research, such as the effects of reserves targeting specific life phases, and a number of essentially unstudied issues, such as density-dependent movements, nomadism, ontogenetic migrations, behavioral polymorphism and 'dynamic' reserves that adjust location as a realtime response to habitat changes. Assessing these issues will be essential to creating effective marine protected area networks for mobile species and accurately assessing reserve impacts on these species.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 141
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Auteur Zupan, L.; Cabeza, M.; Maiorano, L.; Roquet, C.; Devictor, V.; Lavergne, S.; Mouillot, D.; Mouquet, N.; Renaud, J.; Thuiller, W.
Titre Spatial mismatch of phylogenetic diversity across three vertebrate groups and protected areas in Europe Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Diversity and Distributions
Volume 20 Numéro 6 Pages (down) 674-685
Mots-Clés Europe; Species diversity; approach; biodiversity; climate-change; communities; ecological; evolutionary diversity; functional diversity; global patterns; hotspots; nature conservation; phylogenetic diversity; protected areas; spatial biodiversity congruence; species richness; terrestrial vertebrates; unified
Résumé Aim We investigate patterns of phylogenetic diversity in relation to species diversity for European birds, mammals and amphibians to evaluate their congruence and highlight areas of particular evolutionary history. We estimate the extent to which the European network of protected areas (PAs) network retains interesting evolutionary history areas for the three groups separately and simultaneously. Location Europe Methods Phylogenetic (QE(PD)) and species diversity (SD) were estimated using the Rao's quadratic entropy at 10 ' resolution. We determined the regional relationship between QE(PD) and SD for each taxa with a spatial regression model and used the tails of the residuals (QE(RES)) distribution to identify areas of higher and lower QE(PD) than predicted. Spatial congruence of biodiversity between groups was assessed with Pearson correlation coefficient. A simple classification scheme allowed building a convergence map where a convergent pixel equalled to a QE(RES) value of the same sign for the three groups. This convergence map was overlaid to the current PAs network to estimate the level of protection in convergent pixels and compared it to a null expectation built on 1000 randomization of PAs over the landscape. Results QE(RES) patterns across vertebrates show a strong spatial mismatch highlighting different evolutionary histories. Convergent areas represent only 2.7% of the Western Palearctic, with only 8.4% of these areas being covered by the current PAs network while a random distribution would retain 10.4% of them. QE(RES) are unequally represented within PAs: areas with higher QE(PD) than predicted are better covered than expected, while low QE(PD) areas are undersampled. Main conclusions Patterns of diversity strongly diverge between groups of vertebrates in Europe. Although Europe has the world's most extensive PAs network, evolutionary history of terrestrial vertebrates is unequally protected. The challenge is now to reconcile effective conservation planning with a contemporary view of biodiversity integrating multiple facets.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1366-9516 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 856
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Auteur Gerigny, O.; Brun, M.; Fabri, M.C.; Tomasino, C.; Le Moigne, M.; Jadaud, A.; Galgani, F.
Titre Seafloor litter from the continental shelf and canyons in French Mediterranean Water: Distribution, typologies and trends Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Mar. Pollut. Bull.
Volume 146 Numéro Pages (down) 653-666
Mots-Clés abundance; adriatic sea; areas; benthic marine litter; Canyon; Corsica; gulf; Gulf of Lion; impacts; macro; Marine litter; Mediterranean Sea; northern; plastic debris; Seafloor; strategy
Résumé Seafloor litter has been studied both on the continental shelves (by trawling during 24 years) and in canyons (by ROV) of the French Mediterranean sea Water (FMW). On the continental shelf, mean densities range from 49.63 to 289.01 items/km(2). The most abundant categories were plastic, glass/ceramics, metals and textiles. Trend analysis shows a significant increase in plastic quantities during the study period. Plastics accumulate at all depths, with heavier items being found in deeper areas, while the continental slope-break appears as a clean area. The spatial distribution of litter revealed the influence of geomorphologic factors, anthropic activities, shipping route, river inputs. All the canyons are affected by debris but coastal canyons (Ligurian Sea and Corsica) were more impacted than offshore canyons in the Gulf of Lion. The FMW appears to be highly polluted with regard to values found in other areas, but lower than those observed in the Eastern Mediterranean.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0025-326x ISBN Médium
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Notes WOS:000488999000075 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2651
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Auteur Dubois, M.; Rossi, V.; Ser-Giacomi, E.; Arnaud-Haond, S.; Lopez, C.; Hernandez-Garcia, E.
Titre Linking basin-scale connectivity, oceanography and population dynamics for the conservation and management of marine ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Global Ecology and Biogeography Revue Abrégée Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr.
Volume 25 Numéro 5 Pages (down) 503-515
Mots-Clés coral-reef fish; dispersal; genetic-structure; Larval dispersal; local retention; local retention; marine connectivity; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; mediterranean littoral fishes; Mediterranean Sea; metapopulation; pelagic larval duration; population dynamics; Population Genetics; protected-area design; sea; self-recruitment; sink dynamics; source
Résumé AimAssessing the spatial structure and dynamics of marine populations is still a major challenge in ecology. The need to manage marine resources from ecosystem and large-scale perspectives is recognized, but our partial understanding of oceanic connectivity limits the implementation of globally pertinent conservation planning. Based on a biophysical model for the entire Mediterranean Sea, this study takes an ecosystem approach to connectivity and provides a systematic characterization of broad-scale larval dispersal patterns. It builds on our knowledge of population dynamics and discusses the ecological and management implications. LocationThe semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea and its marine ecosystems are used as a case study to investigate broad-scale connectivity patterns and to relate them to oceanography and population dynamics. MethodsA flow network is constructed by evenly subdividing the basin into sub-regions which are interconnected through the transport of larvae by ocean currents. It allows for the computation of various connectivity metrics required to evaluate larval retention and exchange. ResultsOur basin-scale model predicts that retention processes are weak in the open ocean while they are significant in the coastal ocean and are favoured along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic features. Moreover, we show that wind-driven divergent (convergent, respectively) oceanic regions are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks, respectively). Finally, although these connectivity metrics have often been studied separately in the literature, we demonstrate they are interrelated under particular conditions. Their integrated analysis facilitates the appraisal of population dynamics, informing both genetic and demographic connectivities. Main conclusionsThis modelling framework helps ecologists and geneticists to formulate improved hypotheses of population structures and gene flow patterns and to design their sampling strategy accordingly. It is also useful in the implementation and assessment of future protection strategies, such as coastal and offshore marine reserves, by accounting for large-scale dispersal patterns, a missing component of current ecosystem management.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1466-822x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1655
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