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Auteur de Verdal, H.; O'Connell, C.M.; Mekkawy, W.; Vandeputte, M.; Chatain, B.; Begout, M.-L.; Benzie, J.A.H.
Titre Agonistic behaviour and feed efficiency in juvenile Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture
Volume 505 Numéro Pages 271-279
Mots-Clés Agonstic behaviour; arctic charr; atlantic salmon; brain serotonergic activity; brown trout; conversion ratio; Correlation; dominance relationships; Feed efficiency; food acquisition; genetic-improvement; Nile tilapia; Performances; salvelinus-alpinus; social-status
Résumé Given the strong effects of behavioural hierarchies on growth in many cultured species and the key role of feed efficiency in aquaculture economics, understanding the nature of the interaction of these variables is important for the sustainability of aquaculture. The relationship between agonistic behaviour, growth and feed efficiency in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, was studied by rearing 120 fish in eight aquaria. Fish were video-recorded to estimate the occurrence of agonistic behaviour during a fasting and a refeeding period. Growth, feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (FCE – calculated as the inverse of feed conversion ratio (FCR)) were subsequently measured individually for each fish. Fish showed 58% less agonistic traits during the fasting period compared to the feeding period, but generally, an aggressive fish during the fasting period was also aggressive during the refeeding period. The nature of agonistic behaviours between individuals was used to assess the presence of hierarchical relationships between fish. There were dominance hierarchies established in each experimental aquarium that despite minor shifts were maintained throughout the experiment. Agonistic behaviours were strongly correlated with each other, the aggression Index (AI) and with hierarchy rank. PCA analysis of the agonistic behaviours summarising the behavioural information showed little or no correlation between agonistic behaviour, fish growth or FCE. FCE was correlated with body weight gain (BWG). These results suggest that agonistic interactions in juvenile Nile tilapia do not have a large impact on growth and feed conversion efficiency.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2583
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Auteur Larsen, B.K.; Skov, P.V.; McKenzie, D.J.; Jokumsen, A.
Titre The effects of stocking density and low level sustained exercise on the energetic efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at 19 degrees C Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture
Volume 324 Numéro Pages 226-233
Mots-Clés Energetic budget; Rainbow trout; Rearing density; Routine metabolic rate; Schooling behaviour; Sustained exercise; Welfare; cardiorespiratory performance; charr salvelinus-alpinus; feeding-behavior; fish welfare; food-intake; juvenile arctic charr; oxygen-consumption; physiology; respiratory; salmon salmo-salar; seasonal temperature
Résumé A 9 week growth trial was performed at two rearing densities; low (similar to 25 kg m(-3)) and high (similar to 100 kg m-3), in combination with either static water or a water current corresponding to 0.9 body lengths s(-1), to investigate the effects of density and exercise on the bioenergetics of rainbow trout reared at 19 degrees C, particularly routine metabolic rate (RMR), specific growth rate (SGR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The growth trial showed that high rearing density resulted in significantly lower SGR and increased FCR, with no significant alleviating effects of a water current, although slight improvement in both parameters were observed at low density. A significant linear relationship between SGR and FCR suggested that increased energy expenditure was the primary cause of reduced growth. Hourly measurements of instantaneous oxygen uptake, during a period of similar growth (200-350 g), revealed clear effects of the experimental conditions. Energetic budgets were calculated from feed intake and routine metabolic rate (RMR) and revealed that whilst feed intake was similar for all groups, a higher RMR in the high density groups resulted in a higher daily rate of energy utilization for routine activity, leading to slower growth. However, a lower RMR in fish subjected to a current resulted in a greater proportion of energy being retained, leading to significantly higher SGR for the selected period, at both low and high density. Furthermore, the presence of a water current was observed to induce schooling behaviour, which is known to reduce aggression and stress. It is thereby likely that the presence of a current had a positive effect on welfare in addition to its effect on energy metabolism. We conclude that the presence of a water current to some extent could alleviate the negative effects of high density at 19 degrees C, a relatively high temperature experienced in farming of rainbow trout during hot seasons. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 905
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Auteur McKenzie, D.J.; Hoglund, E.; Dupont-Prinet, A.; Larsen, B.K.; Skov, P.V.; Pedersen, P.B.; Jokumsen, A.
Titre Effects of stocking density and sustained aerobic exercise on growth, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture
Volume 338 Numéro Pages 216-222
Mots-Clés Aerobic scope; charr salvelinus-alpinus; Cortisol; Critical swimming speed; current issues; feeding-behavior; fish welfare; juvenile arctic charr; oncorhynchus-mykiss; respiratory physiology; respirometry; salmon salmo-salar; Stress; stress-response; swimming performance; Welfare indicator
Résumé Two stocking densities, “low” (L, between similar to 19 and similar to 25 kg m(-3)) and “high” (H, between similar to 75 and similar to 100 kg m(-3)) were compared for effects on specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion, energetics and welfare of rainbow trout reared at 14 degrees C either in static water (S) or swimming in a gentle current of similar to 0.9 bodylengths s(-1) (C). Trout (initial mass similar to 110 g) were reared for 9 weeks in circular tanks (volume 0.6 m(3)), in triplicate of four conditions (LS, LC, HS, HC). Fish were fed ad-libitum daily: waste pellets were swirl-collected at the outflow to calculate feed intake. SGR was measured each three weeks for the last six weeks of the trial. The tanks functioned as intermittent-stopped flow respirometers, to permit metabolic rate to be measured as instantaneous oxygen uptake once per hour. Mean (+/-SD) SGR was significantly lower at H than L (1.51 +/- 0.03 vs 1.44 +/- 0.04% day(-1), respectively, n = 6) and lowest in HC. When compared over a similar interval of mass gain, H groups had approximately 25% higher metabolic rates than L, with the highest rates in the HC condition. As a result, fish in the H groups dissipated a greater amount of feed energy as metabolism and, across all groups, there was a direct negative relationship between the quantity of energy dissipated and their SCR. There was no evidence of a neuroendocrine stress response, plasma cortisol was around 1 ng ml(-1) in all conditions. An acute crowding stress increased plasma cortisol to above 120 ng ml(-1) in all groups, but C groups recovered to control levels within 8 h whereas S groups required 20 h. Respirometry on individuals revealed that H fish had approximately 14% higher metabolic rates than L fish, indicating that increased metabolic rate in rearing tanks was in part physiological. The H groups had approximately 15% lower critical swimming speeds than the L groups which, together with their raised metabolic rate, indicated a physiological impairment Thus, high density reduced SGR by raising energy dissipation, at least partially as a physiological response by the fish, although there was no evidence of an endocrine stress response. The only beneficial effect of C was in recovery from acute stress. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1431
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