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Auteur (up) Christensen, V.; Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Buszowski, J.; Chagaris, D.; Walters, C.J.
Titre Representing Variable Habitat Quality in a Spatial Food Web Model Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecosystems
Volume 17 Numéro 8 Pages 1397-1412
Mots-Clés Ecology; Ecopath; ecospace; Environmental Management; food web model; foraging capacity model; Geoecology/Natural Processes; habitat modeling; Hydrology/Water Resources; Plant Sciences; sampling; simulation model; species distribution model; Zoology
Résumé Why are marine species where they are? The scientific community is faced with an urgent need to understand aquatic ecosystem dynamics in the context of global change. This requires development of scientific tools with the capability to predict how biodiversity, natural resources, and ecosystem services will change in response to stressors such as climate change and further expansion of fishing. Species distribution models and ecosystem models are two methodologies that are being developed to further this understanding. To date, these methodologies offer limited capabilities to work jointly to produce integrated assessments that take both food web dynamics and spatial-temporal environmental variability into account. We here present a new habitat capacity model as an implementation of the spatial-temporal model Ecospace of the Ecopath with Ecosim approach. The new model offers the ability to drive foraging capacity of species from the cumulative impacts of multiple physical, oceanographic, and environmental factors such as depth, bottom type, temperature, salinity, oxygen concentrations, and so on. We use a simulation modeling procedure to evaluate sampling characteristics of the new habitat capacity model. This development bridges the gap between envelope environmental models and classic ecosystem food web models, progressing toward the ability to predict changes in marine ecosystems under scenarios of global change and explicitly taking food web direct and indirect interactions into account.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1432-9840, 1435-0629 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1196
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Auteur (up) Coll, M.; Akoglu, E.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Fulton, E.A.; Gascuel, D.; Heymans, J.J.; Libralato, S.; Mackinson, S.; Palomera, I.; Piroddi, C.; Shannon, L.J.; Steenbeek, J.; Villasante, S.; Christensen, V.
Titre Modelling dynamic ecosystems: venturing beyond boundaries with the Ecopath approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Rev Fish Biol Fisheries
Volume 25 Numéro 2 Pages 413-424
Mots-Clés conservation; Cumulative impacts; Ecopath with Ecosim; ecospace; ecosystem-based management; ecosystem modelling; End-to-end modelling; Environmental impact assessment; fishing impacts; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Zoology
Résumé Thirty years of progress using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) approach in different fields such as ecosystem impacts of fishing and climate change, emergent ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem-based management, and marine conservation and spatial planning were showcased November 2014 at the conference “Ecopath 30 years-modelling dynamic ecosystems: beyond boundaries with EwE”. Exciting new developments include temporal-spatial and end-to-end modelling, as well as novel applications to environmental impact analyses, in both aquatic and terrestrial domains. A wide range of plug-ins have been added to extend the diagnostic capabilities of EwE, and the scientific community is applying EwE to a diversified range of topics besides fishing impact assessments, such as the development of scientific advice for management, the analysis of conservation issues, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts of environmental and human activities in marine food webs (including habitat modification and the invasion of alien species). Especially promising is the new potential to include the EwE model in integrated assessments with other models such as those related to climate change research. However, there are still many challenges, including the communication of scientific results in management procedures. In addition, other important scientific issues are how to improve model result validation and perform model quality control. During the conference, the Ecopath International Research and Development Consortium was presented as a way for the EwE user community to become involved in the long-term sustainability of the EwE approach. Overall, exciting times are facing the ecosystem modelling scientific community, and as illustrated by the conference: synergistic cooperation is the future path for the EwE approach.
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ISSN 0960-3166, 1573-5184 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1249
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Auteur (up) Le Vaillant, M.; Viblanc, V.A.; Saraux, C.; Bohec, C.L.; Maho, Y.L.; Kato, A.; Criscuolo, F.; Ropert-Coudert, Y.
Titre Telomere length reflects individual quality in free-living adult king penguins Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Polar Biol
Volume 38 Numéro 12 Pages 2059-2067
Mots-Clés Body condition; Breeding performances; Ecology; Long-lived seabird; Microbiology; Natural antibody level; Oceanography; Plant Sciences; Zoology
Résumé Growing evidence suggests that telomeres, non-coding DNA sequences that shorten with age and stress, are related in an undefined way to individual breeding performances and survival rates in several species. Short telomeres and elevated shortening rates are typically associated with life stress and low health. As such, telomeres could serve as an integrative proxy of individual quality, describing the overall biological state of an individual at a given age. Telomere length could be associated with the decline of an array of physiological traits in age-controlled individuals. Here, we investigated the links between individuals’ relative telomere length, breeding performance and various physiological (body condition, natural antibody levels) and life history (age, past breeding success) parameters in a long-lived seabird species, the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. While we observed no link between relative telomere length and age, we found that birds with longer telomeres arrived earlier for breeding at the colony, and had higher breeding performances (i.e. the amount of time adults managed to maintain their chicks alive, and ultimately breeding success) than individuals with shorter telomeres. Further, we observed a positive correlation between telomere length and natural antibody levels. Taken together, our results add to the growing evidence that telomere length is likely to reflect individual quality difference in wild animal.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0722-4060, 1432-2056 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1450
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Auteur (up) Lett, C.; Semeria, M.; Thiebault, A.; Tremblay, Y.
Titre Effects of successive predator attacks on prey aggregations Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Theor Ecol
Volume 7 Numéro 3 Pages 239-252
Mots-Clés Animal aggregation; Animal group; Attraction-repulsion model; Flock; Plant Sciences; School; Swarm; Theoretical Ecology/Statistics; Zoology
Résumé We study the cumulative effect of successive predator attacks on the disturbance of a prey aggregation using a modelling approach. Our model intends to represent fish schools attacked by both aerial and underwater predators. This individual-based model uses long-distance attraction and short-distance repulsion between prey, which leads to prey aggregation and swarming in the absence of predators. When intermediate-distance alignment is added to the model, the prey aggregation displays a cohesive displacement, i.e., schooling, instead of swarming. Including predators, i.e. with repulsion behaviour for prey to predators in the model, leads to flash expansion of the prey aggregation after a predator attack. When several predators attack successively, the prey aggregation dynamics is a succession of expanding-grouping-swarming/schooling phases. We quantify this dynamics by recording the changes in the simulated prey aggregation radius over time. This radius is computed as the longest distance of individual prey to the aggregation centroid, and it is assumed to increase along with prey disturbance. The prey aggregation radius generally increases during flash expansion, then decreases during grouping until reaching a constant lowest level during swarming/schooling. This general dynamics is modulated by several parameters: the frequency, direction (vertical vs. horizontal) and target (centroid of the prey aggregation vs. random prey) of predator attacks; the distance at which prey detect predators; the number of prey and predators. Our results suggest that both aerial and underwater predators are more efficient at disturbing fish schools by increasing their attack frequency at such level that the fish cannot return to swarming/schooling. We find that a mix between aerial and underwater predators is more efficient at disturbing a fish school than a single type of attack, suggesting that aerial and underwater foragers may gain mutual benefits in forming foraging groups.
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ISSN 1874-1738, 1874-1746 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 350
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Auteur (up) Liess, A.; Faithfull, C.; Reichstein, B.; Rowe, O.; Guo, J.; Pete, R.; Thomsson, G.; Uszko, W.; Francoeur, S.N.
Titre Terrestrial runoff may reduce microbenthic net community productivity by increasing turbidity: a Mediterranean coastal lagoon mesocosm experiment Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Hydrobiologia
Volume 753 Numéro 1 Pages 205-218
Mots-Clés Bacteria; Dissolved organic carbon (DOC); Ecology; Enclosure experiment; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Microbenthos; Nutrient subsidy; Terrestrial subsidy; Zoology
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0018-8158, 1573-5117 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1338
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