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Auteur (up) Alfonso, S.; Peyrafort, M.; Cousin, X.; Begout, M.-L. doi  openurl
  Titre Zebrafish Danio rerio shows behavioural cross-context consistency at larval and juvenile stages but no consistency between stages Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Fish Biol.  
  Volume Numéro Pages  
  Mots-Clés boldness; coping style; european sea-bass; fish; indicators; ontogeny; personality; population; rainbow-trout; stress-coping styles; temperament; vital staining  
  Résumé Coping style is defined as a set of individual physiological and behavioural characteristics that are consistent across time and context. In the zebrafish Danio rerio, as well as in many other animals, several covariations have been established among behavioural, physiological and molecular responses. Nonetheless, not many studies have addressed the consistency in behavioural responses over time starting at the larval stage. Therefore, this study aimed to improve the understanding of behavioural consistency across contexts and over time in zebrafish from the larval to juvenile stages. Two distinct experiments were conducted: a larval stage experiment (from 8 to 21 days post fertilization, dpf) and a juvenile stage experiment (from 21 to 60 dpf). On one hand, the larval experiment allows to focus on the transition between 8 and 21 dpf, marked by significant morphological changes related to the end of larval stage and initiation of metamorphosis. On the other hand, the juvenile experiment allows to properly cover the period extending from the end of larval stage to the juvenile stage (60 dpf), including metamorphosis which is itself completed around 45 dpf. Within each experiment, boldness was determined using a group risk-taking test to identify bold and shy individuals. A novel environment test was then performed at the same age to evaluate consistency across contexts. Groups of fish (either bold or shy) were bathed in an alizarin red S solution for later identification of their initially determined coping style to evaluate behavioural consistency over time. Fish were then reared under common garden conditions and challenged again with the same behavioural tests at a later age (21 and 60 dpf in the larval and juvenile experiments, respectively). Behavioural consistency was observed across contexts, with bold fish being more active and expressing higher thigmotaxis regardless of age. There was, however, little behavioural consistency over age, suggesting behavioural plasticity during development. Moreover, the use of alizarin red S to conduct this experiment provides new perspectives for the further study of the longitudinal evolution of various traits, including behaviour, over life stages in fish.  
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  ISSN 0022-1112 ISBN Médium  
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  Notes WOS:000522539400001 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2746  
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Auteur (up) Alfonso, S.; Sadoul, B.; Cousin, X.; Begout, M.-L. doi  openurl
  Titre Spatial distribution and activity patterns as welfare indicators in response to water quality changes in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax Type Article scientifique
  Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci.  
  Volume 226 Numéro Pages Unsp-104974  
  Mots-Clés ammonia toxicity; atlantic salmon; avoidance-behavior; behavioral-responses; Behaviour; current issues; Fish; hyperoxia; hypoxia tolerance; marine fish; rainbow-trout; Stress; stress-response; Water quality; Welfare  
  Résumé In aquaculture, fish are exposed to unavoidable stressors that can be detrimental for their health and welfare. However, welfare in farmed fish can be difficult to assess, and, so far, no standardized test has been universally accepted as a welfare indicator. This work contributes to the establishment of behavioural welfare indicators in a marine teleost in response to different water quality acute stressors. Groups of ten fish were exposed to high Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentration (High TAN, 18 mg.L-1), Hyperoxia (200 % O-2 saturation), Hypoxia (20 % O-2 saturation), or control water quality (100% O-2 saturation and TAN < 2.5 mg.L-1) over 1 hour. Fish were then transferred in a novel environment for a group behaviour test under the same water quality conditions over 2 hours. Videos were recorded to assess thigmotaxis, activity and group cohesion. After this challenge, plasma cortisol concentration was measured in a subsample, while individual behavioural response was measured in the other fish using novel tank diving test. Prior to this study, the novel tank diving test was validated as a behavioural challenge indicative of anxiety state, by using nicotine as anxiolytic drug. Overall, all stress conditions induced a decrease in activity and thigmotaxis and changes in group cohesion while only fish exposed to Hypoxia and High TAN conditions displayed elevated plasma cortisol concentrations. In post-stress condition, activity was still affected but normal behaviour was recovered within the 25 minutes of the test duration. Our work suggests that the activity, thigmotaxis and group cohesion are good behavioural indicators of exposure to degraded water quality, and could be used as standardized measures to assess fish welfare.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes WOS:000531095400002 Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2794  
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Auteur (up) Alix, M.; Blondeau-Bidet, E.; Grousset, E.; Shiranghi, A.; Vergnet, A.; Guinand, B.; Chatain, B.; Boulo, V.; Lignot, J.-H. doi  openurl
  Titre Effects of fasting and re-alimentation on gill and intestinal morphology and indicators of osmoregulatory capacity in genetically selected sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) populations with contrasting tolerance to fasting Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 468 Numéro Pages 314-325  
  Mots-Clés bream sparus-auratus; dietary-sodium chloride; Enterocyte; Fasting; feed deprivation; fish; fresh-water; fundulus-heteroclitus; Gill ionocyte; Morphometry; Ontogeny; oreochromis-mossambicus; Osmoregulation; rainbow-trout; Re-alimentation; Salinity; Sea bass  
  Résumé Fasting and refeeding occur naturally in predators but this is largely ignored when dealing with farmed fish. Therefore,the effects of 3-week fasting and re-alimentation (2.5% of the individual body mass) were investigated using two genetically selected populations (F2 generation) of 250 g juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Blood osmolarity, gill and intestinal morphology and expression of the sodium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase, NKA) were studied on two phenotypes showing different degrees of body mass loss during food deprivation: one group losing body mass rapidly during fasting (F+) and the other one limiting body mass loss during the same period (F-). Blood osmotic pressure significantly decreases due to re-alimentation in both groups, but this is compensated in the F+ group. In this group, gill ionocytes are smaller and less numerous, but a significantly higher NKA gene expression is noted in the gills in comparison to the F- individuals 48 and 72 h after re-alimentation, and also in the posterior intestine 72 h after re-alimentation. This most probably occurs to compensate for a higher salt intake during nutrient absorption in comparison to the F- group. Furthermore, refed F- fish absorb more lipids along the proximal anterior intestine, and take longer to digest than the F+ group, and show enterocyte vacuolization in the posterior intestine. Therefore, the two selected populations have different postprandial digestive strategies: the F- fish optimize feed efficiency first at the cost of optimal hydromineral adjustment, while the F+ group invests in osmoregulatory performance at the expense of digestive physiology. Statement of relevance: Our paper is highly relevant to the general field of commercial aquaculture. There is an increasing number of research articles dealing with fasting and refeeding in commercial fish and how to improve fish nutrition based oh these physiological data and genetic selection. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1712  
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Auteur (up) Avadi, A.; Pelletier, N.; Aubin, J.; Ralite, S.; Nunez Rodriguez, J.; Freon, P. url  doi
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  Titre Comparative environmental performance of artisanal and commercial feed use in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 435 Numéro Pages 52-66  
  Mots-Clés Aquafeed; Black pacu; Environmental impact assessment; Peru; Tilapia; Trout  
  Résumé We used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate some of the environmental implications of using commercial versus artisanal feeds in Peruvian freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum). Several scenarios believed to be representative of current Peruvian aquaculture practices were modelled, namely: production of trout in Andean lake cages; and culture of black pacu and tilapia in Amazonian and coastal lowland ponds, respectively. In general, Peruvian aquaculture is characterised by low technological intensity practices. Use of commercial aquafeeds is widespread, but artisanal feeds are frequently used in certain small-scale farms. We found that trout feeds feature higher environmental burdens than do black pacu and tilapia feeds. A similar trend is observed for production of these species. Across species, the substitution of artisanal with commercial feeds, despite improving feed conversion ratios in all cases, does not always reduce overall environmental impacts. This is due to the additional energy use and transportation requirements associated with commercial feed inputs. The substitution of artisanal feeds with commercial ones generally increases environmental impacts of the fish farming systems for the specific feeds considered, despite enhanced FCRs and economies of scale. This is due to the higher environmental impacts associated to certain feed inputs used in commercial feeds, in particular highly refined feed inputs. Consequently, in light of the importance of feeds to overall life cycle impacts of aquaculture production, the Peruvian aquafeed industry should preferentially source less refined and, in general, less environmentally burdened feed inputs (e. g. Bolivian soybean products over Brazilian, high quality over lower quality fishmeal, avoiding protein concentrates, etc.), to the extent that fish farming performance (i.e. feed conversion efficiency and cost structure) is not strongly affected. Among species, black pacu aquaculture shows the best environmental performance.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1155  
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Auteur (up) Blasco, F.R.; McKenzie, D.J.; Taylor, E.W.; Rantin, F.T. doi  openurl
  Titre The role of the autonomic nervous system in control of cardiac and air-breathing responses to sustained aerobic exercise in the African sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A-Mol. Integr. Physiol.  
  Volume 203 Numéro Pages 273-280  
  Mots-Clés Adrenergic tone; bass dicentrarchus-labrax; cardiorespiratory interactions; Cholinergic tone; Fishes; Heart rate; heart-rate; hoplerythrinus-unitaeniatus; Hypoxia; oxygen-tensions; rainbow-trout; salmo-gairdneri; Swimming; synbranchus-marmoratus  
  Résumé Clarias gariepinus is a facultative air-breathing catfish that exhibits changes in heart rate (f(H)) associated with air breaths (AB). A transient bradycardia prior to the AB is followed by sustained tachycardia during breath-hold. This study evaluated air-breathing and cardiac responses to sustained aerobic exercise in juveniles (total length similar to 20 cm), and how exercise influenced variations in f(H) associated with AB. In particular, it investigated the role of adrenergic and cholinergic control in cardiac responses, and effects of pharmacological abolition of this control on air-breathing responses. Sustained exercise at 15, 30 and 45 cm s(-1) in a swim tunnel caused significant increases in f(AB) and f(H), from approximately 5 breaths h(-1) and 60 heartbeats min(-1) at the lowest speed, to over 60 breaths h(-1) and 100 beats min(-1) at the highest, respectively. There was a progressive decline in the degree of variation in f(H), around each AB, as f(AB) increased with exercise intensity. Total autonomic blockade abolished all variation in fH during exercise, and around each AB, but f(AB) responses were the same as in untreated animals. Cardiac responses were exclusively due to modulation of inhibitory cholinergic tone, which varied from >100% at the lowest speed to <10% at the highest. Cholinergic blockade had no effect on f(AB) compared to untreated fish. Excitatory beta-adrenergic tone was approximately 20% and did not vary with swimming speed, but its blockade increased f(AB) at all speeds, compared to untreated animals. This reveals complex effects of autonomic control on air-breathing during exercise in C. gariepinus, which deserve further investigation. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.  
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  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1095-6433 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1714  
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