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Auteur Sirot, C.; Villeger, S.; Mouillot, D.; Darnaude, A.M.; Ramos-Miranda, J.; Flores-Hernandez, D.; Panfili, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Combinations of biological attributes predict temporal dynamics of fish species in response to environmental changes Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Ecological Indicators Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 48 Numéro Pages 147-156  
  Mots-Clés Ecological and life-history traits; Environmental changes; Estuarine ecosystem; Multivariate index; Species sensitivity; Tropical lagoon  
  Résumé Assessing species vulnerability to environmental changes is a major challenge for conservation. Combinations of biological attributes have already been successfully used for this purpose, allowing large-scale prediction of inter-specific differences in demographic parameters (e.g. abundance) or endangered status. However, studies investigating whether biological attributes could be used to predict the temporal demographic responses of species in a changing environment are still scarce. In this work, we tackled this issue by taking advantage of a multi-decadal survey of concomitant changes in fish communities and environmental conditions within the Terminos lagoon (Mexico). Based on this rare dataset, we first characterized changes in abiotic parameters that occurred in this ecosystem since the 80s. Then, we adapted a multivariate index accounting for changes in both species abundance and occurrence to assess concomitant demographic changes for the 25 dominant fish species in the lagoon, classifying them into five various types of trajectories (“Increasing”, “Decreasing”, “Constant”, “Hump-shape” and “U-shape”). Finally, we assessed the accuracy in prediction of these temporal responses for all possible combinations of 15 biological attributes including taxonomy, ecological and life-history traits. Our results showed that fish specific demographic changes over the last 30 years could be accurately predicted (72% accuracy) using a combination of five biological attributes (spawning season, order, maximum salinity, width of salinity range, oocyte size) among which three could be related to the increase in average salinity occurred in the lagoon over this period. Appropriate sets of complementary biological attributes could similarly allow prediction of inter-specific differences in demographic changes in other areas, thereby offering an additional pragmatic tool for ecosystem managers to identify vulnerable species at the local scale.  
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Auteur Joo, R.; Bertrand, S.; Chaigneau, A.; Niquen, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Optimization of an artificial neural network for identifying fishing set positions from VMS data : an example from the Peruvian anchovy purse seine fishery Type Article scientifique
  Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling  
  Volume 222 Numéro Pages 1048-1059  
  Mots-Clés analysis; anchovy; Artificial; fishery; Fishing; locations; Monitoring; networks; neural; purse; seine; Sensitivity; set; System; Vessel  
  Résumé The spatial behavior of numerous fishing fleets is nowadays well documented thanks to satellite Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS). Vessel positions are recorded on a frequent and regular basis which opens promising perspectives for improving fishing effort estimation and management. However, no specific information is provided on whether the vessel is fishing or not. To answer that question, existing works on VMS data usually apply simple criteria (e.g. threshold on speed). Those simple criteria generally focus in detecting true positives (a true fishing set detected as a fishing set); conversely, estimation errors are given no attention. For our case study, the Peruvian anchovy fishery, those criteria overestimate the total number of fishing sets by 182%. To overcome this problem an artificial neural network (ANN) approach is presented here. In order to set both the optimal parameterization and use “rules” for this ANN, we perform an extensive sensitivity analysis on the optimization of (1) the internal structure and training algorithm of the ANN and (2) the “rules” used for choosing both the relative size and the composition of the databases (DBs) used for training and inferring with the ANN. The “optimized” ANN greatly improves the estimates of the number and location of fishing events. For our case study, ANN reduces the total estimation error on the number of fishing sets to 1% (in average) and obtains 76% of true positives. This spatially explicit information on effort, provided with error estimation, should greatly reduce misleading interpretations of catch per unit effort and thus significantly improve the adaptive management of fisheries. While fitted on Peruvian anchovy fishery data, this type of neural network approach has wider potential and could be implemented in any fishery relying on both VMS and at-sea observer data. In order to increase the accuracy of the ANN results, we also suggest some criteria for improving sampling design by at-sea observers and VMS data.  
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Auteur Ben Othman, H.; Leboulanger, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mabrouk, H.H.; Hlaili, A.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene to marine phytoplankton in culture: Does cell size really matter? Type Article scientifique
  Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Hazard. Mater.  
  Volume 243 Numéro Pages 204-211  
  Mots-Clés Benz(a)anthracene; Ecotoxicity; Fluoranthene; Size-sensitivity relationship; aquatic organisms; biodegradation; chlorophyll; fluorescence; food-web; fresh-water phytoplankton; in-vitro; organic pollutants; pahs; phytoplankton; polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons; surface sediments  
  Résumé The toxicity of benz(a)anthracene and fluoranthene (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) was evaluated on seven species of marine algae in culture belonging to pico-, nano-, and microphytoplankton, exposed to increasing concentrations of up to 2 mg L-1. The short-term (24 h) toxicity was assessed using chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, linked to photosynthetic parameters. The maximum quantum yield Fv/Fm was lower at the highest concentrations tested and the toxicity thresholds were species-dependent. For acute effects, fluoranthene was more toxic than benz(a)anthracene, with LOECs of 50.6 and 186 mu g L-1, respectively. After 72 h exposure, there was a dose-dependent decrease in cell density, fluoranthene being more toxic than benz(a)anthracene. The population endpoint at 72 h was affected to a greater extent than the photosynthetic endpoint at 24 h. EC50 was evaluated using the Hill model, and species sensitivity was negatively correlated to cell biovolume. The largest species tested, the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, was almost insensitive to either PAH. The population endpoint EC50s for fluoranthene varied from 54 mu g L-1 for the picophytoplankton Picochlorum sp. to 418 mu g L-1 for the larger diatom Chaetoceros muelleri. The size/sensitivity relationship is proposed as a useful model when there is a lack of ecotoxicological data on hazardous chemicals, especially in marine microorganisms. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 915  
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Auteur Meynard, C.N.; Kaplan, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Using virtual species to study species distributions and model performance Type Article scientifique
  Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Biogeography  
  Volume 40 Numéro 1 Pages 1-8  
  Mots-Clés Auc; predictive ecology; presence-absence; prevalence; Sensitivity; simulations; specificity; threshold; virtual species  
  Résumé Simulations of virtual species (i.e. species for which the environmentoccupancy relationships are known) are increasingly being used to test the effects of different aspects of modelling and sampling strategy on performance of species distribution models (SDMs). Here we discuss an important step of the simulation process: the translation of simulated probabilities of occurrence into patterns of presence and absence. Often a threshold strategy is used to generate virtual occurrences, where presence always occurs above a specific simulated probability value and never below. This procedure effectively translates any shape of simulated species response into a threshold one and eliminates any stochasticity from the species occupancy pattern. We argue that a probabilistic approach should be preferred instead because the threshold response can be treated as a particular case within this framework. This also allows one to address questions relating to the shape of functional responses and avoids convergence issues with some of the most common SDMs. Furthermore, threshold-based virtual species studies generate over-optimistic performance measures that lack classification error or incorporate error from a mixture of sampling and modelling choices. Incorrect use of a threshold approach can have significant consequences for the practising biogeographer. For example, low model performance may be interpreted as due to sample bias or poor model choice, rather than being related to fundamental biological responses to environmental gradients. We exemplify these shortcomings with a case study where we compare results from threshold and probabilistic simulation approaches.  
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Auteur Minguez, L.; Pedelucq, J.; Farcy, E.; Ballandonne, C.; Budzinski, H.; Halm-Lemeille, M.-P. doi  openurl
  Titre Toxicities of 48 pharmaceuticals and their freshwater and marine environmental assessment in northwestern France Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res.  
  Volume 23 Numéro 6 Pages 4992-5001  
  Mots-Clés antibiotics; Aquatic environment; aquatic environment; Ecotoxicity; emerging contaminants; Fate; mec; pec; Pharmaceuticals; prioritization; risk; risk-assessment; sensitivity; surface waters  
  Résumé A risk assessment for freshwater and marine ecosystems is presented for 48 pharmaceutical compounds, belonging to 16 therapeutic classes, and prescribed in northwestern France. Ecotoxicity data were obtained on two freshwater organisms, i.e., crustacean Daphnia magna and the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, and on two marine organisms, i.e., the crustacean Artemia salina and the diatom Skeletonema marinoi. Measured environmental concentrations (MEC), in the Orne River and sea off Merville-Franceville in the Basse-Normandie region, were compared to the predicted environmental concentrations (PEC). Predicted no-effect concentrations (PNEC) were derived from acute data for each compound. Then, a risk assessment for each compound and the mixture was performed by calculating risk quotients (RQ as PEC or MEC/PNEC ratio). Results showed that no immediate acute toxicities were expected even if some compounds displayed strong toxicities at very low concentrations. Antibiotics, antidepressants, and antifungals would deserve attention because of their high or median ecological risk suspected on marine and freshwater ecosystems. Marine ecosystems would be more sensitive to pharmaceutical residues.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2064  
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