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Auteur (up) Alfonso, S.; Sadoul, B.; Gesto, M.; Joassard, L.; Chatain, B.; Geffroy, B.; Bégout, M.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Coping styles in European sea bass: The link between boldness, stress response and neurogenesis Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Physiology & Behavior  
  Volume 207 Numéro Pages 76-85  
  Mots-Clés Gene transcription; HPI axis; Neurotransmitters; Personality  
  Résumé Coping styles consist of a coherent set of individual physiological and behavioral differences in stress responses that are consistent across time and context. Such consistent inter-individual differences in behavior have already been shown in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), but the associated mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we combine physiological measurements with individual behavioral responses in order to characterize coping styles in fish. Fish were tagged and placed in a tank for group risk-taking tests (GRT) at 8 months of age to evaluate boldness using the proxy latency of leaving a sheltered area towards an open area. A subsample of these fish were individually challenged 16 months later using an open field test (OFT), in which the boldness was assessed after being placed in a shelter within an open arena. Latency to exit the shelter, time spent in the shelter, and distance travelled were recorded for this purpose. The blood and brain were then collected to evaluate plasma cortisol concentration and neurotransmitter levels (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and related metabolites), as well as brain transcription of key genes involved in stress axis regulation (gr1, gr2, mr, crf), neurogenesis (neurod1, neurod2, pcna), and neuronal development (egr1). Fish acting bolder in the GRT were not necessarily those acting bolder in the OFT, highlighting the relatively low consistency across different types of tests performed with a 16-months interval. There was, however, a significant correlation between stress markers and boldness. Indeed, mRNA levels of mr, crf, gr2, egr1, and neurod2, as well as norepinephrine levels were higher in shy than bold fish, whereas brain serotonergic activity was lower in shy fish. Overall, our study highlights the fact that boldness was not consistent over time when testing context differed (group vs. alone). This is in agreement with previous literature suggesting that social context play a key role in boldness measurement and that the particular life history of each individual may account in shaping the personality fate of a fish.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2575  
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Auteur (up) BENHAIM, D.; BEGOUT, M.-L.; PEAN, S.; BRISSET, B.; LEGUAY, D.; CHATAIN, B. url  openurl
  Titre Effect of fasting on self-feeding activity in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Applied Animal Behaviour Science  
  Volume 136 Numéro 1 Pages 63-73  
  Mots-Clés Feeding-behaviour; Personality; Plasticity; Self-feeder; Social structure  
  Résumé In various experiments under self-feeding conditions, sea bass groups could be divided into three categories regarding feeder actuation: high, low and zero-triggering fish. In all cases few high-triggering fish were responsible for a high percentage of the feed delivery. A question was raised about the role played by feeding motivation in such high-triggering status acquisition. It was approached by applying a 3-week fasting period in order to induce similar negative specific growth rate (SGR) in two groups of fish of similar mean weight but with either a low or a high coefficient of variation for weight (CVw)(T-low: CVw similar to 11%, 3 tanks of 60 fish each; T-high: CVw similar to 20%, 3 tanks of 60 fish each). These groups were created to test the consistency of behavioural responses in two different contexts (i.e. two population size-distributions). During the follow-up period of 40 days, the group level feed-demand behaviour was not strongly modified by the fasting period and there were no differences between T-low and T-high groups. Complete growth compensation was the same in all tanks as observed at the end of the experiment. At the individual level, high-triggering fish were exactly the same individuals before and after the fasting period. Up to four high-triggering fish could be observed according to the tank and when several fish were performing high-triggering activity, their rankings were sometimes reversed after the fasting period. High-triggering fish increased their activity levels after the fasting period showing behavioural plasticity. High-triggering status could neither be explained by an initial lower SGR nor a sex effect, nor by any of the measured physiological blood parameters. Thus, individual's triggering activity levels could be related to personality and/or metabolic traits but further research is required to confirm this assumption. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 171  
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Auteur (up) Benhaïm, D.; Ferrari, S.; Chatain, B.; Bégout, M.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre The shy prefer familiar congeners Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Behavioural Processes  
  Volume 126 Numéro Pages 113-120  
  Mots-Clés familiarity; open field; Personality; shoaling behavior; shyness; Social behavior; swimming activity; visual cue  
  Résumé The shy–bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e. the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e. shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1512  
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Auteur (up) Benhaim, D.; Ferrari, S.; Colchen, T.; Chatain, B.; Begout, M.-L. doi  openurl
  Titre Relationship between individual and group learning in a marine teleost: A case study with sea bass under self-feeding conditions Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Learn Behav.  
  Volume 45 Numéro 3 Pages 276-286  
  Mots-Clés animal groups; Behavior; dicentrarchus-labrax; example; fish; Group conditions; growth; Juveniles; Operant conditioning; Personality traits; Positive reinforcement; Producer-scrounger; producer-scrounger game; Social structure; traits; zebrafish danio-rerio  
  Résumé Fish learning and cognition are usually approached by testing single individuals in various devices such as mazes that have serious drawbacks, especially in gregarious species, including the stress induced by the test procedure. This might impair the results and lead to misinterpretation about the learning abilities of the targeted species. In order to provide an alternative to the individual-based tests, we investigated for the first time the operant conditioning of four similar groups (50 individuals per tank) of sea bass. We used two computerized self-feeder devices per tank, each coupled with individual electronic identification and that were alternately activated during varying positive appetitive reinforcement period of time (7 to 1 day). Learning abilities were examined at both group and individual levels. At the group level, the operant conditioning was demonstrated as the triggering activity significantly decreased when the device was turned off and increased when it was turned on, whatever the reinforcement period duration. The individual level analysis revealed a more complex situation with fish showing different learning performances that can be best explained through the producer-scrounger game theory.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1543-4494 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2191  
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Auteur (up) FERRARI, S.; Leguay, D.; Vergnet, A.; Vidal, M.-O.; Chatain, B.; Bégout, M.-L. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Unpredictability in food supply during early life influences growth and boldness in European seabass, Dicentrarchus labrax Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Applied Animal Behaviour Science  
  Volume 180 Numéro Pages 147-156  
  Mots-Clés Behavior; Dicentrarchus labrax; Environmental effect; Exploration; Food deprivation divergent strains; Personality  
  Résumé Biological variability is no longer considered as statistical noise, but rather as an adaptive benefit. This variability comes from consistent differences in behavioral and physiological responses among individuals to a changing/challenging environment, named “coping style”, “temperament” or “personality”. Many studies have described how to characterize personality traits and how to assess their consistency over time and between different contexts; however, little is known about the environmental factors shaping personality development. Because contrasting personalities are maintained with evolution, this lead to the widespread assumption that genes play a predominant role in personality. In many cases, personality traits are however also likely to be determined by individual experience, which is probably at least as important as genetics in shaping personality. The aim of this study was to assess how environmental variability (herein food predictability) impacts behavioral responses, particularly the shyness-boldness axis, one of the most widely shared animal personality trait. Here, we reared juvenile seabass (95 days old) from two divergent strains selected for feed deprivation tolerance under standard conditions for 40 days. Thereafter, we submitted them to two feeding treatments (Predictable versus Unpredictable) starting at 135 dph and lasting 60 days. Seabass reared under a predictable food supply (PFS) grew faster and were shyer than fish reared under an unpredictable food supply (UFS) (i.e. they took more time to exit the refuge zone of a Z-maze; UFS: 132.47 ± 34.63 s; PFS: 336.79 ± 56.97 s) but their exploration tendency was similar. We also examined the behavioral responses of these fish facing a hypoxic challenge. Hypoxia tolerance results were consistent before and after the two feeding treatments. Our findings show the importance of early environmental experience as a driving force shaping boldness. In addition, we provide further evidence that predictable feeding time should be respected in studies assessing essential functions such as growth and behavior. Although personality traits are partially heritable, this study demonstrates the important influence of environmental conditions and life history on behavior.  
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  ISSN 0168-1591 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1574  
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