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Auteur Coll, M.; Steenbeek, J.; Lasram, F.B.; Mouillot, D.; Cury, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) 'Low-hanging fruit' for conservation of marine vertebrate species at risk in the Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Frontiers in Microbiology Revue Abrégée  
  Volume 24 Numéro 2 Pages 226-239  
  Mots-Clés Conservation priorities; cumulative threats; IUCN diversities; marine biodiversity; Marine Protected Areas; Mediterranean Sea  
  Résumé AimConservation priorities need to take the feasibility of protection measures into account. In times of economic pressure it is essential to identify the low-hanging fruit' for conservation: areas where human impacts are lower and biological diversity is still high, and thus conservation is more feasible. LocationWe used the Mediterranean large marine ecosystem (LME) as a case study to identify the overlapping areas of low threats and high diversity of vertebrate species at risk. MethodsThis LME is the first in the world to have a complete regional IUCN Red List assessment of the native marine fish. We augmented these data with distributions of marine mammals, marine turtles and seabirds at risk, and we calculated the spatial distributions of species at risk (IUCN densities). Using cumulative threats we identified priority areas for conservation of species at risk' (PACS), where IUCN diversities are high and threats are low. We assessed whether IUCN diversities and PACS were spatially congruent among taxa and we quantified whether PACS corresponded to current and proposed protected areas. ResultsIUCN densities and PACS were not highly correlated spatially among taxa. Continental shelves and deep-sea slopes of the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean and Tunisian Plateau/Gulf of Sidra are identified as relevant for fish species at risk. The eastern side of the western Mediterranean and the Adriatic Sea are identified as most relevant for endemic fish, and shelf and open sea areas distributed through the LME are most important for marine mammals and turtles at risk, while specific locations of the western Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean and Levantine seas are highlighted for seabirds. Main conclusionsLarge parts of the areas of PACS fell outside current or proposed frameworks to be prioritized for conservation. PACS may be suitable candidates for contributing to the 10% protection target for the Mediterranean Sea by 2020.  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1102  
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Auteur Hattab, T.; Albouy, C.; Lasram, F.B.; Le Loc'h, F.; Guilhaumon, F.; Leprieur, F. url  doi
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  Titre (up) A biogeographical regionalization of coastal Mediterranean fishes Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Biogeography  
  Volume 42 Numéro 7 Pages 1336-1348  
  Mots-Clés Beta diversity; Biogeography; bioregionalization; coastal fishes; compositional turnover; environmental gradient; historical processes; Mediterranean Sea; phylogenetic turnover; species composition  
  Résumé AimTo delineate the biogeographical regions of the continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea based on the spatial distributions of coastal marine fishes and their evolutionary relationships, with a view to furthering our capacity to answer basic and applied biogeographical, ecological and evolutionary questions. LocationMediterranean Sea. MethodsWe used a dataset summarizing the occurrences of 203 coastal Mediterranean fishes (0.1 degrees resolution grid system) and a molecular phylogenetic tree to quantify both compositional and phylogenetic dissimilarity (or beta diversity) between cells. We then applied multivariate analyses to delineate biogeographical regions and to evaluate how they related to broad-scale environmental gradients. We also assessed the differences between the biogeographical regions identified using phylogenetic beta diversity versus those obtained using compositional beta diversity. ResultsThe bioregionalization schemes based on phylogenetic and compositional beta diversity identified broadly similar regions, each consisting of six distinct pools of coastal fishes. Clear separations between northern and southern regions were observed, as well as a disjunct between inshore and offshore areas. These beta diversity patterns were mainly related to a north-south gradient in sea-surface temperature and bathymetric constraints. Main conclusionsIncorporating phylogenetic information into the measurement of beta diversity did not offer further insights to the bioregionalization scheme based solely on compositional beta diversity. This suggests that evolutionary and historical processes played only a minor role in shaping the contemporary patterns of beta diversity in the Mediterranean coastal fish fauna. However, our results support the view that contemporary environmental conditions play a major role in determining the distribution of these species.  
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  ISSN 0305-0270 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1331  
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Auteur Cahill, A.E.; De Jode, A.; Dubois, S.; Bouzaza, Z.; Aurelle, D.; Boissin, E.; Chabrol, O.; David, R.; Egea, E.; Ledoux, J.-B.; Mérigot, B.; Weber, A.A.-T.; Chenuil, A. doi  openurl
  Titre (up) A multispecies approach reveals hot spots and cold spots of diversity and connectivity in invertebrate species with contrasting dispersal modes Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Mol. Ecol.  
  Volume 26 Numéro 23 Pages 6563-6577  
  Mots-Clés genetic diversity; dispersal; life-history traits; reef fishes; marine connectivity; pelagic larval duration; mediterranean sea; amphipholis-squamata; brooding brittle star; coralligenous assemblages; larvae; marine invertebrates; phylogeographical breaks; population structure; population genetic-structure; species genetic diversity correlation  
  Résumé Genetic diversity is crucial for species' maintenance and persistence, yet is often overlooked in conservation studies. Species diversity is more often reported due to practical constraints, but it is unknown if these measures of diversity are correlated. In marine invertebrates, adults are often sessile or sedentary and populations exchange genes via dispersal of gametes and larvae. Species with a larval period are expected to have more connected populations than those without larval dispersal. We assessed the relationship between measures of species and genetic diversity, and between dispersal ability and connectivity. We compiled data on genetic patterns and life history traits in nine species across five phyla. Sampling sites spanned 600km in the northwest Mediterranean Sea and focused on a 50-km area near Marseilles, France. Comparative population genetic approaches yielded three main results. (i) Species without larvae showed higher levels of genetic structure than species with free-living larvae, but the role of larval type (lecithotrophic or planktotrophic) was negligible. (ii) A narrow area around Marseilles, subject to offshore advection, limited genetic connectivity in most species. (iii) We identified sites with significant positive contributions to overall genetic diversity across all species, corresponding with areas near low human population densities. In contrast, high levels of human activity corresponded with a negative contribution to overall genetic diversity. Genetic diversity within species was positively and significantly linearly related to local species diversity. Our study suggests that local contribution to overall genetic diversity should be taken into account for future conservation strategies.  
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  ISSN 0962-1083 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2262  
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Auteur Meddeb, M.; Niquil, N.; Grami, B.; Mejri, K.; Haraldsson, M.; Chaalali, A.; Pringault, O.; Hlaili, A.S. doi  openurl
  Titre (up) A new type of plankton food web functioning in coastal waters revealed by coupling Monte Carlo Markov chain linear inverse method and ecological network analysis Type Article scientifique
  Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Indic.  
  Volume 104 Numéro Pages 67-85  
  Mots-Clés Bacterial multivorous food web; biogenic carbon; Coastal waters; continental-shelf; Ecology; ecosystem attributes; flow networks; Food web modeling; grazing impact; gulf; mediterranean sea; model analysis; Network analysis; Seasonal variations; seasonal-dynamics; trophic network; Trophic structure  
  Résumé Plankton food webs (PFW) typology is based on different categories of functioning, according to the dominant processes and the role played by heterotrophic bacteria, small vs large phytoplankton, and small vs large zooplankton. Investigating the structure and the function of planktonic food webs in two SW Mediterranean waters (inshore and marine sites) at four seasons, using inverse (LIM-MCMC) and ecological network (ENA) analyses, we identified a new type of food web, called the “bacterial multivorous food web”. This food web adds to the conventional trophic continuum as previously reported. The “bacterial multivorous food web” present in winter showed the lowest primary production among seasons, but highest bacterial production. Several food web ratios characterized this new typology e.g. picophytoplankton net primary production to total primary production varied from 0.20 to 0.28; bacterial to primary production ratio is higher than values reported in global scale (congruent to 1); bacterial net production to the potential protozoan prey net production was high (>0.2). In this special food web, carbon was mostly recycled, with a moderate fraction channeled to deep waters, which lead to a higher retention of carbon inside the ecosystem. This winter PFW also seemed to be the most organized, specialized, stable and mature, as related to common interpretations of ENA. The spring was characterized by herbivorous food web, with highest activity coinciding with low stability. Although less usual, the herbivorous pathway was also observed during summer, in inshore waters. The autumn food webs, which functioned as multivorous or microbial food webs, appeared to be stable and mature. Finally, our study demonstrates the usefulness of food web models derived ratios combined with ecological network analysis indices to conduct evaluation of the structure and functioning of ecosystems and potentially to support management decisions in marine environment.  
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  Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1470-160x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2596  
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Auteur Elleouet, J.; Albouy, C.; Ben Rais Lasram, F.; Mouillot, D.; Leprieur, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre (up) A trait-based approach for assessing and mapping niche overlap between native and exotic species: the Mediterranean coastal fish fauna as a case study Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Diversity and Distributions  
  Volume 20 Numéro 11 Pages 1333-1344  
  Mots-Clés Biological invasions; coastal fishes; endemic species; exotic species; functional traits; Mediterranean Sea; niche overlap  
  Résumé Aim We propose a trait-based approach for assessing and mapping potential niche overlap between native and exotic species at large spatial scales. Location The Mediterranean Sea. Methods We developed two complementary indices based on ecological, biological and ecomorphological similarities between native and exotic species. The first index (FNNr) allows identifying areas where native species are the most at risk in terms of potential ecological interactions with exotic species. The second index (FGO) is species-specific and allows identifying native species that display the broadest functional niche overlap and range overlap with exotic species. We illustrated our approach using the Mediterranean coastal fish fauna as a case study. Results We found that endemic and exotic fishes had a similar global functional niche at the Mediterranean scale, that is, they filled the same functional space defined by trait axes. FNNr hotspots were found to be moderately congruent with exotic species richness hotspots. Higher values of FNNr were observed along the coasts of the Levantine Sea. The computation of the FGO index showed that the geographical range of a given endemic species overlapped in average with 52 exotic species. Species showing the highest FGO values displayed localized and/or fragmented distributions in the eastern Mediterranean basin. Main conclusions Our findings suggest that the number of exotic species alone cannot be used as a broad-scale indicator of potential impact because this metric does not account for functional relatedness between native and exotic species. The trait-based indices developed in this study can be used for other taxa in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and should help environmental managers to set up local-scale studies on areas where the potential impact of exotic species on native biodiversity is the highest.  
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  ISSN 1472-4642 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1165  
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