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Auteur Santos, B.S.; Friedrichs, M.A.M.; Rose, S.A.; Barco, S.G.; Kaplan, D.M.
Titre Likely locations of sea turtle stranding mortality using experimentally-calibrated, time and space-specific drift models Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Biol. Conserv.
Volume (down) 226 Numéro Pages 127-143
Mots-Clés bycatch; chesapeake bay; Chesapeake Bay; Drift simulations; Endangered species; fisheries; Fisheries and vessel interactions; global patterns; hotspots; ichthyoplankton; manatees; Marine conservation; megafauna; Protected species management; Sea turtle mortality; Sea turtle strandings; vessel; virginia
Résumé Sea turtle stranding events provide an opportunity to study drivers of mortality, but causes of strandings are poorly understood. A general sea turtle carcass oceanographic drift model was developed to estimate likely mortality locations from coastal sea turtle stranding records. Key model advancements include realistic direct wind forcing on carcasses, temperature driven carcass decomposition and the development of mortality location predictions for individual strandings. We applied this model to 2009-2014 stranding events within the Chesapeake Bay, Virginia. Predicted origin of vessel strike strandings were compared to commercial vessel data, and potential hazardous turtle-vessel interactions were identified in the southeastern Bay and James River. Commercial fishing activity of gear types with known sea turtle interactions were compared to predicted mortality locations for stranded turtles with suggested fisheries-induced mortality. Probable mortality locations for these strandings varied seasonally, with two distinct areas in the southwest and southeast portions of the lower Bay. Spatial overlap was noted between potential mortality locations and gillnet, seine, pot, and pound net fisheries, providing important information for focusing future research on mitigating conflict between sea turtles and human activities. Our ability to quantitatively assess spatial and temporal overlap between sea turtle mortality and human uses of the habitat were hindered by the low resolution of human use datasets, especially those for recreational vessel and commercial fishing gear distributions. This study highlights the importance of addressing these data gaps and provides a meaningful conservation tool that can be applied to stranding data of sea turtles and other marine megafauna worldwide.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2433
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Auteur Goetze, J.; Langlois, T.; Claudet, J.; Januchowski-Hartley, F.; Jupiter, S.D.
Titre Periodically harvested closures require full protection of vulnerable species and longer closure periods Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Biol. Conserv.
Volume (down) 203 Numéro Pages 67-74
Mots-Clés areas; biomass; Fiji; Fisheries management; life-history; Locally managed marine areas; Marine conservation; marine reserves; predatory fish; Recovery; reef fish communities; responses; small-scale fisheries; stereo-video; vulnerability
Résumé Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are small fisheries closures with objectives such as sustaining fisheries and conserving biodiversity and have become one of the most common forms of nearshore marine management in the Western Pacific. Although PHCs can provide both short-term conservation and fisheries benefits, their potential as a long-term management strategy remains unclear. Through empirical assessment of a single harvest event in each of five PHCs, we determined whether targeted fishes that differ in their vulnerability to fishing recovered to pre-harvest conditions (the state prior to last harvest) and demonstrated post-harvest recovery benefits after 1 year of re-closure. For low and moderately vulnerable species, two PHCs provided significant pre-harvest benefits and one provided significant post-harvest recovery benefits, suggesting a contribution to longer-term sustainability. PHCs with a combination of high compliance and longer closing times are more likely to provide fisheries benefits and recover from harvest events, however, no benefits were observed across any PHCs for highly vulnerable species. We recommend PHCs have longer closure periods before being harvested and species that are highly vulnerable to fishing (e.g. large species of; grouper, wrasse and parrotfish) are avoided during harvests to avoid overexploitation and increase the sustainability of small-scale fisheries. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1695
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Auteur Capietto, A.; Escalle, L.; Chavance, P.; Dubroca, L.; Delgado de Molina, A.; Murua, H.; Floch, L.; Damiano, A.; Rowat, D.; Mérigot, B.
Titre Mortality of marine megafauna induced by fisheries: Insights from the whale shark, the world’s largest fish Type Article scientifique
Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Biological Conservation
Volume (down) 174 Numéro Pages 147-151
Mots-Clés Apparent survival; Bycatch; Hotspots of interaction; marine conservation; Megafauna; Rhincodon typus
Résumé The expansion of human activities is endangering megafauna in both terrestrial and marine ecosystems. While large marine vertebrates are often vulnerable and emblematic species, many are considered to be declining, primarily due to fisheries activities. In the open ocean, certain fisheries improve their efficiency of detecting tuna schools by locating and fishing close to some macro-organisms, such as whale sharks or marine mammals. However, collecting accurate data on the accidental capture and mortality of these organisms is a complex process. We analyzed a large database of logbooks from 65 industrial vessels with and without scientific observers on board (487,272 and 16,096 fishing sets since 1980 and 1995 respectively) in both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Distribution maps of Sightings Per Unit of Effort highlights major hotspots of interactions between the fishery and whale sharks in the coastal area from Gabon to Angola in the Atlantic from April to September, and in the Mozambique Channel in the Indian Ocean between April and May. The incidence of apparent whale shark mortality due to fishery interaction is extremely low (two of the 145 whale sharks encircled by the net died, i.e. 1.38%). However, these two hotspots presented a relatively high rate of incidental whale shark capture. Thus, we underline the importance of estimating long-term post-release mortality rates by tracking individuals and/or by photographic identification to define precise conservation management measures.
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ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 347
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Auteur Doxa, A.; Holon, F.; Deter, J.; Villeger, S.; Boissery, P.; Mouquet, N.
Titre Mapping biodiversity in three-dimensions challenges marine conservation strategies: The example of coralligenous assemblages in North-Western Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Indicators
Volume (down) 61, Part 2 Numéro Pages 1042-1054
Mots-Clés Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Community dissimilarities; Coralligenous outcrops; French Mediterranean coast; Marine conservation; Multi-facet diversities; Vertical diversity
Résumé Multi-facet diversity indices have been increasingly widely used in conservation ecology but congruence analyses both on horizontal and vertical axes have not yet been explored. We investigated the vertical and horizontal distributions of α and β taxonomic (TD), functional (FD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) in a three-dimensional structured ecosystem. We focused on the Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages which form complex structures both vertically and horizontally, and are considered as the most diverse and threatened communities of the Mediterranean Sea. Although comparable to tropical reef assemblages in terms of richness, biomass and production, coralligenous assemblages are less known and more rarely studied, in particular because of their location in deep waters. Our study covers the entire range of distribution of coralligenous habitats along the French Mediterranean coasts, representing the most complete database so far developed for this important ecosystem. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of spatial diversity patterns of marine biodiversity on both horizontal and vertical scales. Our study revealed that taxonomic diversity differed from functional and phylogenetic diversity patterns at the station level, the latter two being strongly structured by depth, with shallower stations generally richer than deeper ones. Considering all stations, phylogenetic diversity was less congruent to taxonomic diversity (Pearson's correlation of r = 0.48) but more congruent to functional diversity (r = 0.69) than randomly expected. Similar congruence patterns were revealed for stations deeper than 50 m (r = 0.44 and r = 0.84, respectively) but no significantly different congruence level than randomly expected was revealed among diversity facets for more shallow stations. Mean functional α- and β-diversity were lower than phylogenetic diversity and even lower than taxonomic α- and β-diversity for both vertical and horizontal scales. Low FD and PD values at both α- and β-diversity indicated functional and phylogenetic clustering. Community dissimilarities (β-diversity) increased over depth especially in central and eastern part of the French Mediterranean littoral and in northern Corsica, indicating coralligenous vertical structure within these regions. Overall horizontal β-diversity was higher within the 50–70 m depth belts. We conclude that taxonomic diversity alone is inadequate as a basis for setting conservation goals for this ecosystem and additional information, at least on phylogenetic diversity, is needed to preserve the ecosystem functioning and coralligenous evolutionary history. Our results highlight the necessity of considering different depth belts as a basis for regional scale conservation efforts. Current conservation approaches, such as the existing marine protected areas, are insufficient in preserving coralligenous habitats. The use of multi-facet indices should be considered, focusing on preserving local diversity patterns and compositional dissimilarities, both vertically and horizontally.
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ISSN 1470-160x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1529
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Auteur Katsanevakis, S.; Levin, N.; Coll, M.; Giakoumi, S.; Shkedi, D.; Mackelworth, P.; Levy, R.; Velegrakis, A.; Koutsoubas, D.; Caric, H.; Brokovich, E.; Öztürk, B.; Kark, S.
Titre Marine conservation challenges in an era of economic crisis and geopolitical instability: The case of the Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Policy
Volume (down) 51 Numéro Pages 31-39
Mots-Clés Conservation opportunities; Data gaps; Exclusive economic zones; marine conservation; Mediterranean; Transboundary collaboration
Résumé In the Mediterranean Sea, socio-economic drivers may accelerate the process of exclusive economic zone (EEZ) declarations. Despite the challenges, the EEZ declarations may provide important opportunities for leveraging change to national policy towards the development of large-scale conservation of marine ecosystems and biodiversity in this zone. Using the Mediterranean Sea as a case study, we aim to highlight a set of best practices that will maximize the potential for the development of large-scale marine conservation initiatives. These include a range of approaches, such as using surrogates to fill the many biodiversity data gaps in the region, further the development of consistent and open access databases, and the utilization of technological developments to improve monitoring, research and surveillance of less accessible and under-explored marine areas. The integration of Mediterranean-wide and local conservation efforts, the facilitation of transboundary collaboration, and the establishment of regional funds for conservation will further enhance opportunities for marine conservation in this region.
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ISSN 0308-597x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1107
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