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Auteur Rufino, M.M.; Bez, N.; Brind'Amour, A.
Titre Ability of spatial indicators to detect geographic changes (shift, shrink and split) across biomass levels and sample sizes Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Indic.
Volume 115 Numéro Pages (down) 106393
Mots-Clés aggregation; bay; coast; communities; distributions; fish; Fisheries management; Marine conservation; Monitoring; patterns; Spatial metrics; time
Résumé Spatial indicators are widely used to monitor species and are essential to management and conservation. In the present study, we tested the ability of 11 spatial indicators to quantify changes in species' geographic patterns: (1) spatial displacement of a patch of biomass ('shift'), (2) a spatial decrease in a patch, accompanied either by a loss of biomass ('shrink0') or (3) a relocation of the same biomass ('shrink1'), and (4) splitting of a patch into smaller patches ('split'). The geographic changes were simulated by manipulating the spatial distributions of the demersal species (observed during bottom trawl surveys). Hence, the spatial distributions of the latter being used as input data on which the manipulations were done. Additionally, other aspects of the indicators affecting the responses to the geographic changes were also tested, (1) homogeneous increase in biomass throughout the patch and (2) different sample sizes. The center of gravity (defined by latitude and longitude) was the only indicator that accurately detected the 'shift' in biomass. The index of aggregation identified a decrease in the area and biomass of the main biomass patch ('shrink0'), while the Gini index, equality area and spreading area were accurately identified a decrease in the area of the main biomass patch when total biomass did not decreased ('Shrink1'). Inertia and isotropy responded to all geographic changes, except for those in biomass or distribution area. None of the indicators successfully identified 'split' process. Likewise, one of the indicators were sensitive to a homogeneous increase in biomass or the type of spatial distribution. Overall, all indicators behaved similarly well when sample sizes exceeded 40 stations randomly located in the area. The framework developed provides an accessible and simple approach that can be used to evaluate the ability of spatial indicators to identify geographic processes using empirical data and can be extended to other indicators or geographic processes. We discuss perspectives of the development of spatial indicators especially within the application of EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1470-160x ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes WOS:000559801800002 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2871
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Auteur Doxa, A.; Holon, F.; Deter, J.; Villeger, S.; Boissery, P.; Mouquet, N.
Titre Mapping biodiversity in three-dimensions challenges marine conservation strategies: The example of coralligenous assemblages in North-Western Mediterranean Sea Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Indicators
Volume 61, Part 2 Numéro Pages (down) 1042-1054
Mots-Clés Alpha diversity; Beta diversity; Community dissimilarities; Coralligenous outcrops; French Mediterranean coast; Marine conservation; Multi-facet diversities; Vertical diversity
Résumé Multi-facet diversity indices have been increasingly widely used in conservation ecology but congruence analyses both on horizontal and vertical axes have not yet been explored. We investigated the vertical and horizontal distributions of α and β taxonomic (TD), functional (FD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) in a three-dimensional structured ecosystem. We focused on the Mediterranean coralligenous assemblages which form complex structures both vertically and horizontally, and are considered as the most diverse and threatened communities of the Mediterranean Sea. Although comparable to tropical reef assemblages in terms of richness, biomass and production, coralligenous assemblages are less known and more rarely studied, in particular because of their location in deep waters. Our study covers the entire range of distribution of coralligenous habitats along the French Mediterranean coasts, representing the most complete database so far developed for this important ecosystem. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of spatial diversity patterns of marine biodiversity on both horizontal and vertical scales. Our study revealed that taxonomic diversity differed from functional and phylogenetic diversity patterns at the station level, the latter two being strongly structured by depth, with shallower stations generally richer than deeper ones. Considering all stations, phylogenetic diversity was less congruent to taxonomic diversity (Pearson's correlation of r = 0.48) but more congruent to functional diversity (r = 0.69) than randomly expected. Similar congruence patterns were revealed for stations deeper than 50 m (r = 0.44 and r = 0.84, respectively) but no significantly different congruence level than randomly expected was revealed among diversity facets for more shallow stations. Mean functional α- and β-diversity were lower than phylogenetic diversity and even lower than taxonomic α- and β-diversity for both vertical and horizontal scales. Low FD and PD values at both α- and β-diversity indicated functional and phylogenetic clustering. Community dissimilarities (β-diversity) increased over depth especially in central and eastern part of the French Mediterranean littoral and in northern Corsica, indicating coralligenous vertical structure within these regions. Overall horizontal β-diversity was higher within the 50–70 m depth belts. We conclude that taxonomic diversity alone is inadequate as a basis for setting conservation goals for this ecosystem and additional information, at least on phylogenetic diversity, is needed to preserve the ecosystem functioning and coralligenous evolutionary history. Our results highlight the necessity of considering different depth belts as a basis for regional scale conservation efforts. Current conservation approaches, such as the existing marine protected areas, are insufficient in preserving coralligenous habitats. The use of multi-facet indices should be considered, focusing on preserving local diversity patterns and compositional dissimilarities, both vertically and horizontally.
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Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1529
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Auteur GAGNAIRE, P.-A.; BROQUET, T.; AURELLE, D.; VIARD, F.; SOUISSI, A.; BONHOMME, F.; ARNAUD-HAOND, S.; Bierne, N.
Titre Using neutral, selected, and hitchhiker loci to assess connectivity of marine populations in the genomic era Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Evolutionary Applications
Volume 8 Numéro 8 Pages (down) 769-786
Mots-Clés connectivity; gene flow; marine conservation; population genomics; Population structure
Résumé Estimating the rate of exchange of individuals among populations is a central concern to evolutionary ecology and its applications to conservation and management. For instance, the efficiency of protected areas in sustaining locally endangered populations and ecosystems depends on reserve network connectivity. The population genetics theory offers a powerful framework for estimating dispersal distances and migration rates from molecular data. In the marine realm, however, decades of molecular studies have met limited success in inferring genetic connectivity, due to the frequent lack of spatial genetic structure in species exhibiting high fecundity and dispersal capabilities. This is especially true within biogeographic regions bounded by well-known hotspots of genetic differentiation. Here, we provide an overview of the current methods for estimating genetic connectivity using molecular markers and propose several directions for improving existing approaches using large population genomic datasets. We highlight several issues that limit the effectiveness of methods based on neutral markers when there is virtually no genetic differentiation among samples. We then focus on alternative methods based on markers influenced by selection. Although some of these methodologies are still underexplored, our aim was to stimulate new research to test how broadly they are applicable to nonmodel marine species. We argue that the increased ability to apply the concepts of cline analyses will improve dispersal inferences across physical and ecological barriers that reduce connectivity locally. We finally present how neutral markers hitchhiking with selected loci can also provide information about connectivity patterns within apparently well-mixed biogeographic regions. We contend that one of the most promising applications of population genomics is the use of outlier loci to delineate relevant conservation units and related eco-geographic features across which connectivity can be measured.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1752-4571 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1434
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Auteur Navarro, J.; Cardador, L.; Fernández, Á.M.; Bellido, J.M.; Coll, M.
Titre Differences in the relative roles of environment, prey availability and human activity in the spatial distribution of two marine mesopredators living in highly exploited ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Biogeogr.
Volume 43 Numéro 3 Pages (down) 440-450
Mots-Clés deviance partitioning; elasmobranchs; environmental variables; human stressors; indicator species; marine biodiversity; Marine conservation; Mediterranean Sea; Raja asterias; Scyliorhinus canicula
Résumé Aim Identifying the main factors affecting the spatial distribution of marine predators is essential in order to evaluate their distribution patterns, predict the potential impact of human activities on their populations and design accurate management actions. This information is also valuable from a more general management perspective, as marine predators are often considered indicators of habitat quality. In this context, we aimed to determine the degree to which environmental features, prey availability and human activities interact and influence spatial distribution of two marine mesopredator elasmobranchs, the small-spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the Mediterranean starry ray (Raja asterias), living in a highly human-exploited environment. Location Mediterranean Sea. Methods With information obtained from an extended experimental survey, we investigated the relative importance of environmental variables, prey availability and human activities on the spatial distribution of the abundance, biomass and occurrence rate of these marine mesopredators using deviance partitioning analyses. Results Our results revealed that environmental variables were the most important factors explaining the spatial distribution of Mediterranean starry ray, whereas small-spotted catshark distribution was also influenced by prey availability and human factors. From a management point of view, these findings suggest that Mediterranean starry ray could be a good candidate as an indicator species of demersal environmental quality. On the other hand, the distribution of the small-spotted catshark, which responds in an interactive and complex way to environment, prey availability and particular human activities, may be misleading as an environmental indicator. Main conclusions The spatial distribution of elasmobranchs in highly human-impacted marine areas can reflect the interactive and combined effects of multiple factors. To avoid misunderstandings, attention should be paid to statistical procedures allowing the separation of pure and joint contribution of the factors driving the observed spatial patterns.
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Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1365-2699 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1538
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Auteur Escalle, L.; Pennino, M.G.; Gaertner, D.; Chavance, P.; Delgado de Molina, A.; Demarcq, H.; Romanov, E.; Mérigot, B.
Titre Environmental factors and megafauna spatio-temporal co-occurrence with purse-seine fisheries Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Fish. Oceanogr.
Volume 25 Numéro 4 Pages (down) 433-447
Mots-Clés cetaceans; Eastern Atlantic Ocean; generalized additive models-boosted regression trees; marine conservation; purse-seine fishery; residual autocovariate; Western Indian Ocean; whale sharks
Résumé Tropical tuna purse-seine fisheries spatially co-occur with various megafauna species, such as whale sharks, dolphins and baleen whales in all oceans of the world. Here, we analyzed a 10-year (2002–2011) dataset from logbooks of European tropical tuna purse-seine vessels operating in the tropical Eastern Atlantic and Western Indian Oceans, with the aim of identifying the principle environmental variables under which such co-occurrence appear. We applied a Delta-model approach using Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) models, accounting for spatial autocorrelation using a contiguity matrix based on a residuals autocovariate (RAC) approach. The variables that contributed most in the models were chlorophyll-a concentration in the Atlantic Ocean, as well as depth and monsoon in the Indian Ocean. High co-occurrence between whale sharks, baleen whales and tuna purse-seine fisheries were mostly observed in productive areas during particular seasons. In light of the lack of a full coverage scientific observer on board program, the large, long-term dataset obtained from logbooks of tuna purse-seine vessels is highly important for identifying seasonal and spatial co-occurrence between the distribution of fisheries and megafauna, and the underlying environmental variables. This study can help to design conservation management measures for megafauna species within the framework of spatial fishery management strategies.
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ISSN 1365-2419 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1587
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