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Auteur Hill, S.L.; Hinke, J.; Bertrand, S.; Fritz, L.; Furness, R.W.; Ianelli, J.N.; Murphy, M.; Oliveros‐Ramos, R.; Pichegru, L.; Sharp, R.; Stillman, R.A.; Wright, P.J.; Ratcliffe, N.
Titre Reference points for predators will progress ecosystem-based management of fisheries Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Fish and Fisheries
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés adaptive management; Aichi Biodiversity Targets; ecosystem interactions; indirect impacts; management strategy; precautionary approach
Résumé Ecosystem-based management of fisheries aims to allow sustainable use of fished stocks while keeping impacts upon ecosystems within safe ecological limits. Both the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the Aichi Biodiversity Targets promote these aims. We evaluate implementation of ecosystem-based management in six case-study fisheries in which potential indirect impacts upon bird or mammal predators of fished stocks are well publicized and well studied. In particular, we consider the components needed to enable management strategies to respond to information from predator monitoring. Although such information is available in all case-studies, only one has a reference point defining safe ecological limits for predators and none has a method to adjust fishing activities in response to estimates of the state of the predator population. Reference points for predators have been developed outside the fisheries management context, but adoption by fisheries managers is hindered a lack of clarity about management objectives and uncertainty about how fishing affects predator dynamics. This also hinders the development of adjustment methods because these generally require information on the state of ecosystem variables relative to reference points. Nonetheless, most of the case-studies include precautionary measures to limit impacts on predators. These measures are not used tactically and therefore risk excessive restrictions on sustainable use. Adoption of predator reference points to inform tactical adjustment of precautionary measures would be an appropriate next step towards ecosystem-based management.
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ISSN 1467-2979 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2684
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Auteur Jacquemot, L.; Bettarel, Y.; Monjol, J.; Corre, E.; Halary, S.; Desnues, C.; Bouvier, T.; Ferrier-Pages, C.; Baudoux, A.-C.
Titre Therapeutic potential of a new jumbo phage that infects Vibrio coralliilyticus, a widespread coral pathogen Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Front. Microbiol.
Volume 9 Numéro Pages 2501
Mots-Clés bacterial pathogen; bacteriophages; coral disease; database; disease; phage therapy; phage-host interactions; phi-kz; ralstonia-solanacearum; reef ecosystems; sequence; transfer-rna genes; Vibrio coralliilyticus; viral genomics; virulence factors
Résumé Biological control using bacteriophages is a promising approach for mitigating the devastating effects of coral diseases. Several phages that infect Vibrio coralliilyticus, a widespread coral pathogen, have been isolated, suggesting that this bacterium is permissive to viral infection and is, therefore, a suitable candidate for treatment by phage therapy. In this study, we combined functional and genomic approaches to evaluate the therapeutic potential of BONAISHI, a novel V. coralliilyticus phage, which was isolated from the coral reef in Van Phong Bay (Vietnam). BONAISHI appears to be strictly lytic for several pathogenic strains of V. coralliilyticus and remains infectious over a broad range of environmental conditions. This candidate has an unusually large dsDNA genome (303 kb), with no genes that encode known toxins or implicated in lysogeny control. We identified several proteins involved in host lysis, which may offer an interesting alternative to the use of whole bacteriophages for controlling V. coralliilyticus. A preliminary therapy test showed that adding BONAISHI to an infected culture of Symbiodinium sp. cells reduced the impact of V. coralliilyticus on Symbiodinium sp. photosynthetic activity. This study showed that BONAISHI is able to mitigate V. coralliilyticus infections, making it a good candidate for phage therapy for coral disease.
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ISSN 1664-302x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2446
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Auteur Jacquet, C.; Moritz, C.; Morissette, L.; Legagneux, P.; Massol, F.; Archambault, P.; Gravel, D.
Titre No complexity-stability relationship in empirical ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Nat. Commun.
Volume 7 Numéro Pages 12573
Mots-Clés biodiversity; body-size; connectance; diversity; ecopath; interaction strengths; models; perturbations; real food webs; systems
Résumé Understanding the mechanisms responsible for stability and persistence of ecosystems is one of the greatest challenges in ecology. Robert May showed that, contrary to intuition, complex randomly built ecosystems are less likely to be stable than simpler ones. Few attempts have been tried to test May's prediction empirically, and we still ignore what is the actual complexity-stability relationship in natural ecosystems. Here we perform a stability analysis of 116 quantitative food webs sampled worldwide. We find that classic descriptors of complexity (species richness, connectance and interaction strength) are not associated with stability in empirical food webs. Further analysis reveals that a correlation between the effects of predators on prey and those of prey on predators, combined with a high frequency of weak interactions, stabilize food web dynamics relative to the random expectation. We conclude that empirical food webs have several non-random properties contributing to the absence of a complexity-stability relationship.
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ISSN 2041-1723 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1638
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Auteur Krause, J.; Herbert-Read, J.E.; Seebacher, F.; Domenici, P.; Wilson, A.D.M.; Marras, S.; Svendsen, M.B.S.; Strombom, D.; Steffensen, J.F.; Krause, S.; Viblanc, P.E.; Couillaud, P.; Bach, P.; Sabarros, P.S.; Zaslansky, P.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.
Titre Injury-mediated decrease in locomotor performance increases predation risk in schooling fish Type Article scientifique
Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B-Biol. Sci.
Volume 372 Numéro 1727 Pages 20160232
Mots-Clés animal groups; Behavior; danger; fish schools; geometry; group-living; killer whales; locomotion; organization; Predation; prey interactions; selfish herd; spatial position; spatial positions; vertebrates
Résumé The costs and benefits of group living often depend on the spatial position of individuals within groups and the ability of individuals to occupy preferred positions. For example, models of predation events for moving prey groups predict higher mortality risk for individuals at the periphery and front of groups. We investigated these predictions in sardine (Sardinella aurita) schools under attack from group hunting sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus) in the open ocean. Sailfish approached sardine schools about equally often from the front and rear, but prior to attack there was a chasing period in which sardines attempted to swim away from the predator. Consequently, all sailfish attacks were directed at the rear and peripheral positions of the school, resulting in higher predation risk for individuals at these positions. During attacks, sailfish slash at sardines with their bill causing prey injury including scale removal and tissue damage. Sardines injured in previous attacks were more often found in the rear half of the school than in the front half. Moreover, injured fish had lower tail-beat frequencies and lagged behind uninjured fish. Injuries inflicted by sailfish bills may, therefore, hinder prey swimming speed and drive spatial sorting in prey schools through passive self-assortment. We found only partial support for the theoretical predictions from current predator-prey models, highlighting the importance of incorporating more realistic predator-prey dynamics into these models. This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'.
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ISSN 0962-8436 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2161
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Auteur Le Chevanton, M.; Garnier, M.; Bougaran, G.; Schreiber, N.; Lukomska, E.; Bérard, J.B.; Fouilland, E.; Bernard, O.; Cadoret, J.P.
Titre Screening and selection of growth-promoting bacteria for Dunaliella cultures Type Article scientifique
Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée Algal Research
Volume 2 Numéro Pages 212-222
Mots-Clés Bacterial diversity; Dunaliella; Interaction; bacteria; microalgae
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ISSN 2211-9264 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 815
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