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Auteur (up) Alix, M.; Blondeau-Bidet, E.; Grousset, E.; Shiranghi, A.; Vergnet, A.; Guinand, B.; Chatain, B.; Boulo, V.; Lignot, J.-H. doi  openurl
  Titre Effects of fasting and re-alimentation on gill and intestinal morphology and indicators of osmoregulatory capacity in genetically selected sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) populations with contrasting tolerance to fasting Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquaculture  
  Volume 468 Numéro Pages 314-325  
  Mots-Clés bream sparus-auratus; dietary-sodium chloride; Enterocyte; Fasting; feed deprivation; fish; fresh-water; fundulus-heteroclitus; Gill ionocyte; Morphometry; Ontogeny; oreochromis-mossambicus; Osmoregulation; rainbow-trout; Re-alimentation; Salinity; Sea bass  
  Résumé Fasting and refeeding occur naturally in predators but this is largely ignored when dealing with farmed fish. Therefore,the effects of 3-week fasting and re-alimentation (2.5% of the individual body mass) were investigated using two genetically selected populations (F2 generation) of 250 g juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Blood osmolarity, gill and intestinal morphology and expression of the sodium pump (Na+, K+-ATPase, NKA) were studied on two phenotypes showing different degrees of body mass loss during food deprivation: one group losing body mass rapidly during fasting (F+) and the other one limiting body mass loss during the same period (F-). Blood osmotic pressure significantly decreases due to re-alimentation in both groups, but this is compensated in the F+ group. In this group, gill ionocytes are smaller and less numerous, but a significantly higher NKA gene expression is noted in the gills in comparison to the F- individuals 48 and 72 h after re-alimentation, and also in the posterior intestine 72 h after re-alimentation. This most probably occurs to compensate for a higher salt intake during nutrient absorption in comparison to the F- group. Furthermore, refed F- fish absorb more lipids along the proximal anterior intestine, and take longer to digest than the F+ group, and show enterocyte vacuolization in the posterior intestine. Therefore, the two selected populations have different postprandial digestive strategies: the F- fish optimize feed efficiency first at the cost of optimal hydromineral adjustment, while the F+ group invests in osmoregulatory performance at the expense of digestive physiology. Statement of relevance: Our paper is highly relevant to the general field of commercial aquaculture. There is an increasing number of research articles dealing with fasting and refeeding in commercial fish and how to improve fish nutrition based oh these physiological data and genetic selection. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.  
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  ISSN 0044-8486 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1712  
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Auteur (up) Boudour-Boucheker, N.; Boulo, V.; Charmantier-Daures, M.; Grousset, E.; Anger, K.; Charmantier, G.; Lorin-Nebel, C. url  doi
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  Titre Differential distribution of V-type H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the branchial chamber of the palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum Type Article scientifique
  Année 2014 Publication Revue Abrégée Cell and Tissue Research  
  Volume 357 Numéro 1 Pages 195-206  
  Mots-Clés Branchiostegite; Gills; Na+/K+-ATPase; Osmoregulation; V-type H+-ATPase; crab eriocheir-sinensis; decapoda; epithelial potential difference; fresh-water crab; gill epithelium; homarus-gammarus; ion-transport; larval development; lobster; olfersii; plasma-membrane; salinity acclimation  
  Résumé V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase were localized in the gills and branchiostegites of M. amazonicum and the effects of salinity on the branchial chamber ultrastructure and on the localization of transporters were investigated. Gills present septal and pillar cells. In freshwater (FW), the apical surface of pillar cells is amplified by extensive evaginations associated with mitochondria. V-H+-ATPase immunofluorescence was localized in the membranes of the apical evaginations and in clustered subapical areas of pillar cells, suggesting labeling of intracellular vesicle membranes. Na+/K+-ATPase labeling was restricted to the septal cells. No difference in immunostaining was recorded for both proteins according to salinity (FW vs. 25 PSU). In the branchiostegite, both V-H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase immunofluorescence were localized in the same cells of the internal epithelium. Immunogold revealed that V-H+-ATPase was localized in apical evaginations and in electron-dense areas throughout the inner epithelium, while Na+/K+-ATPase occurred densely along the basal infoldings of the cytoplasmic membrane. Our results suggest that morphologically different cell types within the gill lamellae may also be functionally specialized. We propose that, in FW, pillar cells expressing V-H+-ATPase absorb ions (Cl-, Na+) that are transported either directly to the hemolymph space or through a junctional complex to the septal cells, which may be responsible for active Na+ delivery to the hemolymph through Na+/K+-ATPase. This suggests a functional link between septal and pillar cells in osmoregulation. When shrimps are transferred to FW, gill and branchiostegite epithelia undergo ultrastructural changes, most probably resulting from their involvement in osmoregulatory processes.  
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  ISSN 0302-766x ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 541  
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Auteur (up) Diankha, O.; Demarcq, H.; Fall, M.; Thiao, D.; Thiaw, M.; Sow, B.A.; Gaye, A.T.; Brehmer, P. doi  openurl
  Titre Studying the contribution of different fishing gears to the Sardinella small-scale fishery in Senegalese waters Type Article scientifique
  Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée Aquat. Living Resour.  
  Volume 30 Numéro Pages 27  
  Mots-Clés abundance; africa; aurita; catch; dynamics; Effects of fishing; environmental-factors; Generalized additive model; generalized additive-models; patterns; Pelagic fish; Purse seine; retention; Sardinella aurita; Sardinella maderensis; Senegal; Surrounding gillnet  
  Résumé This study investigated variations of landings of two key species, Sardinella aurita and Sardinella maderensis, in Senegalese waters over a ten-year period (2004-2013). Using generalized additive models, it was found that fishing gear played a major role in explaining differences in monthly landings for both species (51-71% deviance explained). Its effect was more significant in the southern part of Senegal. Fishing effort (number of trips) accounted only for 4-18% of variability in landings. Purse seine (PS) fishing was the most important contributor to the landings of both species. In addition, in the southern area, surrounding gillnet fishing was also important for S. maderensis. Modeling results showed that the relationship between monthly effort and landings was generally positive and leveling off, while it was dome shaped for PSs and surrounding gillnets. Thus, when estimating fishing effort indices for management in Senegal, it is necessary to account for differences in fishing gears and the non-linear relationship between fishing effort and landings.  
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  ISSN 0990-7440 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2168  
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Auteur (up) Gerber, L.; Lee, C.E.; Grousset, E.; Blondeau-Bidet, E.; Boucheker, N.B.; Lorin-Nebel, C.; Charmantier-Daures, M.; Charmantier, G. doi  openurl
  Titre The Legs Have It: In Situ Expression of Ion Transporters V-Type H+-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase in the Osmoregulatory Leg Organs of the Invading Copepod Eurytemora affinis Type Article scientifique
  Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Physiol. Biochem. Zool.  
  Volume 89 Numéro 3 Pages 233-250  
  Mots-Clés crab chasmagnathus-granulatus; crustacea; euryhaline crabs; fresh-water crab; immunolocalization; integumental windows; ionic regulation; malpighian tubules; messenger-rna expression; Na+/K+-ATPase; Osmoregulation; posterior gills; salinity acclimation; shrimp macrobrachium-amazonicum; swimming legs; V-type H+-ATPase  
  Résumé The copepod Eurytemora affinis has an unusually broad salinity range, as some populations have recently invaded freshwater habitats independently from their ancestral saline habitats. Prior studies have shown evolutionary shifts in ion transporter activity during freshwater invasions and localization of ion transporters in newly discovered “Crusalis organs” in the swimming legs. The goals of this study were to localize and quantify expression of ion transport enzymes V-type H+-ATPase (VHA) and Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) in the swimming legs of E. affinis and determine the degree of involvement of each leg in ionic regulation. We confirmed the presence of two distinct types of ionocytes in the Crusalis organs. Both cell types expressed VHA and NKA, and in the freshwater population the location of VHA and NKA in ionocytes was, respectively, apical and basal. Quantification of in situ expression of NKA and VHA established the predominance of swimming leg pairs 3 and 4 in ion transport in both saline and freshwater populations. Increases in VHA expression in swimming legs 3 and 4 of the freshwater population (in fresh water) relative to the saline population (at 15 PSU) arose from an increase in the abundance of VHA per cell rather than an increase in the number of ionocytes. This result suggests a simple mechanism for increasing ion uptake in fresh water. In contrast, the decline in NKA expression in the freshwater population arose from a decrease in ionocyte area in legs 4, likely resulting from decreases in number or size of ionocytes containing NKA. Such results provide insights into mechanisms of ionic regulation for this species, with added insights into evolutionary mechanisms underlying physiological adaptation during habitat invasions.  
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  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 1522-2152 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1622  
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Auteur (up) Gros, O.; Elisabeth, N.H.; Gustave, S.D.D.; Caro, A.; Dubilier, N. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Plasticity of symbiont acquisition throughout the life cycle of the shallow-water tropical lucinid Codakia orbiculata (Mollusca: Bivalvia) Type Article scientifique
  Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Environ. Microbiol.  
  Volume 14 Numéro 6 Pages 1584-1595  
  Mots-Clés bacteria; bathymodiolus-azoricus; cold; endosymbiont transmission; gill-endosymbionts; identification; in-situ hybridization; population; seeps; sulfur; vertical transmission  
  Résumé In marine invertebrates that acquire their symbionts from the environment, these are generally only taken up during early developmental stages. In the symbiosis between lucinid clams and their intracellular sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, it has been shown that the juveniles acquire their symbionts from an environmental stock of free-living symbiont forms, but it is not known if adult clams are still competent to take up symbiotic bacteria from the environment. In this study, we investigated symbiont acquisition in adult specimens of the lucinid clam Codakia orbiculata, using transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and PCR. We show here that adults that had no detectable symbionts after starvation in aquaria for 6 months, rapidly reacquired symbionts within days after being returned to their natural environments in the field. Control specimens that were starved and then exposed to seawater aquaria with sulfide did not reacquire symbionts. This indicates that the reacquisition of symbionts in the starved clams returned to the field was not caused by high division rates of a small pool of remaining symbionts that we were not able to detect with the methods used here. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody against actin, a protein involved in the phagocytosis of intracellular bacteria, showed that actin was expressed at the apical ends of the gill cells that took up symbionts, providing further evidence that the symbionts were acquired from the environment. Interestingly, actin expression was also observed in symbiont-containing cells of untreated lucinids freshly collected from the environment, indicating that symbiont acquisition from the environment occurs continuously in these clams throughout their lifetime.  
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  ISSN 1462-2912 ISBN Médium  
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  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 784  
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