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Auteur Hermes-Lima, M.; Moreira, D.C.; Rivera-Ingraham, G.A.; Giraud-Billoud, M.; Genaro-Mattos, T.C.; Campos, É.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Titre Preparation for oxidative stress under hypoxia and metabolic depression: Revisiting the proposal two decades later Type Article scientifique
  Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Free Radical Biology and Medicine  
  Volume 89 Numéro Pages 1122-1143  
  Mots-Clés Anoxia; Dehydration; Estivation; Freeze tolerance; Hypoxia tolerance; Ischemia  
  Résumé Organisms that tolerate wide variations in oxygen availability, especially to hypoxia, usually face harsh environmental conditions during their lives. Such conditions include, for example, lack of food and/or water, low or high temperatures, and reduced oxygen availability. In contrast to an expected strong suppression of protein synthesis, a great number of these animals present increased levels of antioxidant defenses during oxygen deprivation. These observations have puzzled researchers for more than 20 years. Initially, two predominant ideas seemed to be irreconcilable: on one hand, hypoxia would decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, while on the other the induction of antioxidant enzymes would require the overproduction of ROS. This induction of antioxidant enzymes during hypoxia was viewed as a way to prepare animals for oxidative damage that may happen ultimately during reoxygenation. The term “preparation for oxidative stress” (POS) was coined in 1998 based on such premise. However, there are many cases of increased oxidative damage in several hypoxia-tolerant organisms under hypoxia. In addition, over the years, the idea of an assured decrease in ROS formation under hypoxia was challenged. Instead, several findings indicate that the production of ROS actually increases in response to hypoxia. Recently, it became possible to provide a comprehensive explanation for the induction of antioxidant enzymes under hypoxia. The supporting evidence and the limitations of the POS idea are extensively explored in this review as we discuss results from research on estivation and situations of low oxygen stress, such as hypoxia, freezing exposure, severe dehydration, and air exposure of water-breathing animals. We propose that, under some level of oxygen deprivation, ROS are overproduced and induce changes leading to hypoxic biochemical responses. These responses would occur mainly through the activation of specific transcription factors (FoxO, Nrf2, HIF-1, NF-κB, and p53) and post translational mechanisms, both mechanisms leading to enhanced antioxidant defenses. Moreover, reactive nitrogen species are candidate modulators of ROS generation in this scenario. We conclude by drawing out the future perspectives in this field of research, and how advances in the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the POS strategy will offer new and innovative study scenarios of biological and physiological cellular responses to environmental stress.  
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  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0891-5849 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1476  
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Auteur Secor, S.M.; Lignot, J.-H. url  openurl
  Titre Morphological plasticity of vertebrate aestivation Type Article scientifique
  Année 2010 Publication Revue Abrégée Progress in molecular and subcellular biology  
  Volume 49 Numéro Pages 183-208  
  Mots-Clés *physiology; Animals. Estivation / *physiology. Skin / ultrastructure. Vertebrates / *anatomy & histology; Index Medicus  
  Résumé Aestivation or daily torpor is an adaptive tactic to survive hot and dry periods of low food availability, and has been documented for species of lungfishes, teleost fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Among these species, aestivation is characterized by inactivity and fasting, and for lungfishes and amphibians the formation of a cocoon around the body to retard water loss. While metabolic and physiological changes to aestivation have been well examined, few studies have explored the morphological responses of organs and tissues to aestivation. Predictably, inactive tissues such as skeletal muscles and those of the gastrointestinal tract would regress during aestivation, and thus aid in the reduction of metabolic rate. African lungfishes experience changes in the structure of their skin, gills, lungs, and heart during aestivation. For anurans, the group most thoroughly examined for morphological responses, aestivation generates significant decreases in gut mass and modification of the intestinal epithelium. Intestinal mucosal thickness, enterocyte size, and microvillus length of anurans are characteristically reduced during aestivation. We can surmise from laboratory studies on fasting reptiles, birds, and mammals that they likewise experience atrophy of their digestive tissues during torpor or aestivation. Aestivation-induced loss of tissue structure may be matched with a loss of cellular function generating an integrative decrease in tissue performance and metabolism. Ample opportunity exists to remedy the paucity of studies on the morphological plasticity of organs and tissues to aestivation and examine how such responses dictate tissue function during and immediately following aestivation.  
  Adresse  
  Auteur institutionnel Thèse  
  Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur  
  Langue English M3 -; Review Langue du Résumé Titre Original  
  Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé  
  Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition  
  ISSN 0079-6484 ISBN Médium  
  Région Expédition Conférence  
  Notes Approuvé pas de  
  Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 737  
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