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Auteur Trenkel, V.M.; Vaz, S.; Albouy, C.; Brind’Amour, A.; Duhamel, E.; Laffargue, P.; Romagnan, J.B.; Simon, J.; Lorance, P.
Titre We can reduce the impact of scientific trawling on marine ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée Marine Ecology Progress Series
Volume 609 Numéro Pages 277-282
Mots-Clés Ecosystem-based management; Genetic methods; Impacts of bottom trawling; Marine surveying; Monitoring ethics
Résumé The negative impacts that scientific monitoring may have on marine ecosystems has been a neglected topic, mainly on the basis that its magnitude is minor compared to commercial fisheries, even though this raises ethical and, in certain cases, conservation issues. We argue that ethical principles should lead us to reconsider marine wildlife resource monitoring such as the fish and shellfish trawl surveys providing the science-based evidence needed for fisheries management and assessment of how environmental change affects marine shelf communities worldwide. Recent scientific and technological progress has provided methods and tools which might now be harnessed to reduce the impact of marine monitoring. We review these alternative methods, consider modifications to current practices and identify areas requiring further research.
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ISSN (up) 0171-8630, 1616-1599 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2519
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Auteur Cox, S.L.; Embling, C.B.; Hosegood, P.J.; Votier, S.C.; Ingram, S.N.
Titre Oceanographic drivers of marine mammal and seabird habitat-use across shelf-seas: A guide to key features and recommendations for future research and conservation management Type Article scientifique
Année 2018 Publication Revue Abrégée Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci.
Volume 212 Numéro Pages 294-310
Mots-Clés Bio-physical coupling; bottle-nosed dolphins; california current system; coastal upwelling system; Conservation management; ecosystem-based management; Foraging ecology; Habitat selection; Marine mammals; Oceanography; porpoise phocoena-phocoena; predator-prey interactions; Seabirds; southeastern bering-sea; st-george island; thin zooplankton layers; tidal-stream environments
Résumé Mid-latitude (similar to 30-60 degrees) seasonally stratifying shelf-seas support a high abundance and diversity of marine predators such as marine mammals and seabirds. However, anthropogenic activities and climate change impacts are driving changes in the distributions and population dynamics of these animals, with negative consequences for ecosystem functioning. Across mid-latitude shelf-seas marine mammals and seabirds are known to forage across a number of oceanographic habitats that structure the spatio-temporal distributions of prey fields. Knowledge of these and the bio-physical mechanisms driving such associations are needed to improve marine management and policy. Here, we provide a concise and easily accessible guide for both researchers and managers of marine systems on the predominant oceanographic habitats that are favoured for foraging by marine mammals and seabirds across mid-latitude shelf-seas. We (1) identify and describe key discrete physical features present across the continental shelf, working inshore from the shelf-edge to the shore line, (2) provide an overview of findings relating to associations between these habitats and marine mammals and seabirds, (3) identify areas for future research and (4) discuss the relevance of such information to conservation management. We show that oceanographic features preferentially foraged at by marine mammals and seabirds include shelf edge fronts, upwelling and tidal-mixing fronts, offshore banks and internal waves, regions of stratification, and topographically complex coastal areas subject to strong tidal flow. Whilst associations were variable across taxa and through space and time, in the majority of cases interactions between bathymetry and tidal currents appear to play a dominant role, alongside patterns in seasonal stratification and shelf-edge upwelling. We suggest that the ecological significance of these bio-physical structures stems from a capacity to alter the densities, distributions (both horizontally and vertically) and/or behaviours of prey in a persistent and/or predictable manner that increases accessibility for predators, and likely enhances foraging efficiency. Future conservation management should aim to preserve and protect these habitats. This will require adaptive and holistic strategies that are specifically tailored to the characteristics of an oceanographic feature, and where necessary, evolve through space and time in response to spatio-temporal variability. Improved monitoring of animal movements and biophysical conditions across shelf-seas would aid in this. Areas for future research include multi-disciplinary/ trophic studies of the mechanisms linking bio-physical processes, prey and marine mammals and seabirds (which may elucidate the importance of lesser studied features such as bottom fronts and Langmuir circulation cells), alongside a better understanding of how predators perceive their environment and develop foraging strategies during immature/juvenile stages. Estimates of the importance of oceanographic habitat features at a population level should also be obtained. Such information is vital to ensuring the future health of these complex ecosystems, and can be used to assess how anthropogenic activities and future environmental changes will impact the functioning and spatio-temporal dynamics of these bio-physical features and their use by marine predators.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN (up) 0272-7714 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2428
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Auteur Guiet, J.; Poggiale, J.-C.; Maury, O.
Titre Modelling the community size-spectrum: recent developments and new directions Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecological Modelling
Volume 337 Numéro Pages 4-14
Mots-Clés climate change; Community size-spectrum; ecosystem-based management; end-to-end model; Marine ecosystem model; Trait-based model
Résumé The regularity of the community size-spectrum, i.e., the fact that the total ecosystem biomass contained in logarithmically equal body size intervals remains constant, is a striking characteristic of marine ecosystems. Community size-spectrum models exploit this feature to represent marine ecosystems with two measures: the slope and the intercept (height) of the community spectrum. Size-spectrum models have gain popularity over time to model the properties of fish communities, whether to investigate the impact of fishing, or embedded into end-to-end models to investigate the impact of climate. We review the main features and state of the art developments in the domain of continuous size-spectrum models. The community spectrum emerges from a balance between size-selective predation, growth and biomass dissipation. Further to these basic components, reproduction and various causes of mortality have been introduced in recent studies to increase the model's realism or simply close the mass budget of the spectrum. These different processes affect the stability of the spectrum and affect the predictions of the size-spectrum models. A few models have also introduced a representation of life-history traits in the community size-spectrum. This allows accounting for the diversity of energy pathways in food webs and for the fact that metabolism is both size- and species-specific. The community-level metabolism therefore depends on the species composition of the community. The size-spectrum's regularity at the community level can serve as a conceptual basis for building theories of marine ecosystems’ functioning. It is also used as indicator of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. The mechanistic nature of size-spectrum models as well as their simple and aggregated representation of complex systems makes them good candidates as a strategic management tool. For instance, for testing the impact of different fishing management actions or for projecting marine ecosystem's states under various climate change scenarios.
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Langue Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN (up) 0304-3800 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1586
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Auteur Heymans, J.J.; Coll, M.; Link, J.S.; Mackinson, S.; Steenbeek, J.; Walters, C.; Christensen, V.
Titre Best practice in Ecopath with Ecosim food-web models for ecosystem-based management Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Model.
Volume 331 Numéro Pages 173-184
Mots-Clés benguela ecosystem; dynamics; Ecological network analysis; Ecopath with Ecosim; Ecosystem-based management; Ecosystem modelling; exploited ecosystems; impacts; indicators; marine ecosystems; Monte Carlo; network analysis; nw mediterranean sea; shelf ecosystem; southern benguela; Time series fitting
Résumé Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) models are easier to construct and use compared to most other ecosystem modelling techniques and are therefore more widely used by more scientists and managers. This, however, creates a problem with quality assurance; to address this we provide an overview of best practices for creating Ecopath, models. We describe the diagnostics that can be used to check for thermodynamic and ecological principles, and highlight principles that should be used for balancing a model. We then highlight the pitfalls when comparing Ecopath models using Ecological Network Analysis indices. For dynamic simulations in Ecosim we show the state of the art in calibrating the model by fitting it to time series using a formal fitting procedure and statistical goodness of fit. Finally, we show how Monte Carlo simulations can be used to address uncertainty in input parameters, and we discuss the use of models in a management context, specifically using the concept of 'key runs' for ecosystem-based management. This novel list of best practices for EwE models will enable ecosystem managers to evaluate the goodness of fit of the given EwE model to the ecosystem management question. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
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Auteur institutionnel Thèse
Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN (up) 0304-3800 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
Notes Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1644
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Auteur Coll, M.; Akoglu, E.; Arreguín-Sánchez, F.; Fulton, E.A.; Gascuel, D.; Heymans, J.J.; Libralato, S.; Mackinson, S.; Palomera, I.; Piroddi, C.; Shannon, L.J.; Steenbeek, J.; Villasante, S.; Christensen, V.
Titre Modelling dynamic ecosystems: venturing beyond boundaries with the Ecopath approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Rev Fish Biol Fisheries
Volume 25 Numéro 2 Pages 413-424
Mots-Clés conservation; Cumulative impacts; Ecopath with Ecosim; ecospace; ecosystem-based management; ecosystem modelling; End-to-end modelling; Environmental impact assessment; fishing impacts; Freshwater & Marine Ecology; Zoology
Résumé Thirty years of progress using the Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) approach in different fields such as ecosystem impacts of fishing and climate change, emergent ecosystem dynamics, ecosystem-based management, and marine conservation and spatial planning were showcased November 2014 at the conference “Ecopath 30 years-modelling dynamic ecosystems: beyond boundaries with EwE”. Exciting new developments include temporal-spatial and end-to-end modelling, as well as novel applications to environmental impact analyses, in both aquatic and terrestrial domains. A wide range of plug-ins have been added to extend the diagnostic capabilities of EwE, and the scientific community is applying EwE to a diversified range of topics besides fishing impact assessments, such as the development of scientific advice for management, the analysis of conservation issues, and the evaluation of cumulative impacts of environmental and human activities in marine food webs (including habitat modification and the invasion of alien species). Especially promising is the new potential to include the EwE model in integrated assessments with other models such as those related to climate change research. However, there are still many challenges, including the communication of scientific results in management procedures. In addition, other important scientific issues are how to improve model result validation and perform model quality control. During the conference, the Ecopath International Research and Development Consortium was presented as a way for the EwE user community to become involved in the long-term sustainability of the EwE approach. Overall, exciting times are facing the ecosystem modelling scientific community, and as illustrated by the conference: synergistic cooperation is the future path for the EwE approach.
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Editeur Lieu de Publication Éditeur
Langue en Langue du Résumé Titre Original
Éditeur de collection Titre de collection Titre de collection Abrégé
Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN (up) 0960-3166, 1573-5184 ISBN Médium
Région Expédition Conférence
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1249
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