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Auteur Almoussawi, A.; Lenoir, J.; Jamoneau, A.; Hattab, T.; Wasof, S.; Gallet-Moron, E.; Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Spicher, F.; Kobaissi, A.; Decocq, G.
Titre Forest fragmentation shapes the alpha-gamma relationship in plant diversity Type Article scientifique
Année 2019 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Veg. Sci.
Volume Numéro Pages
Mots-Clés agricultural landscapes; alpha diversity; anthropogenic disturbances; assemblages; community assembly; community patterns; competition; connectivity; dispersal limitations; gamma diversity; habitat conservation strategies; habitat fragmentation; local-regional richness relationship; metacommunity dynamics; regional species richness; relative importance; saturation; specialists; succession
Résumé Questions Forest fragmentation affects biodiversity locally (alpha diversity) and beyond – at relatively larger scales (gamma diversity) – by increasing dispersal and recruitment limitations. Yet, does an increase in fragmentation affect the relationship between alpha and gamma diversity and what can we learn from it? Location Northern France. Methods We surveyed 116 forest patches across three fragmentation levels: none (continuous forest); intermediate (forest patches connected by hedgerows); and high (isolated forest patches). Plant species richness of both forest specialists and generalists was surveyed at five nested spatial resolutions across each forest patch: 1 m(2); 10 m(2); 100 m(2); 1,000 m(2); and total forest patch area. First, we ran log-ratio models to quantify the alpha-gamma relationship. We did that separately for all possible combinations of fragmentation level (none vs intermediate vs high) x spatial scale (e.g., alpha-1 m(2) vs gamma-10 m(2)) x species type (e.g., alpha-specialists vs gamma-specialists). We then used linear mixed-effects models to analyze the effect of fragmentation level, spatial scale, species type and all two-way interaction terms on the slope coefficient extracted from all log-ratio models. Results We found an interaction effect between fragmentation level and species type, such that forest specialists shifted from a linear (i.e., proportional sampling) to a curvilinear plateau (i.e., community saturation) relationship at low and high fragmentation, respectively, while generalists shifted from a curvilinear to a linear pattern. Conclusions The impact of forest fragmentation on the alpha-gamma relationship supports generalist species persistence over forest specialists, with contrasting mechanisms for these two guilds. As fragmentation increases, forest specialists shift from proportional sampling towards community saturation, thus reducing alpha diversity likely due to dispersal limitation. Contrariwise, generalists shift from community saturation towards proportional sampling, thus increasing alpha diversity likely due to an increase in the edge:core ratio. To ensure long-term conservation of forest specialists, one single large forest patch should be preferred over several small ones.
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ISSN 1100-9233 ISBN Médium
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Notes WOS:000493723100001 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2676
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Auteur Aubree, F.; David, P.; Jarne, P.; Loreau, M.; Mouquet, N.; Calcagno, V.
Titre How community adaptation affects biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships Type Article scientifique
Année 2020 Publication Revue Abrégée Ecol. Lett.
Volume 23 Numéro 8 Pages 1263-1275
Mots-Clés stability; competition; species richness; species interactions; diversity; selection; consequences; species traits; evolution; productivity; food webs; Adaptive dynamics; eco-evolutionary dynamics; invasion; niche differentiation
Résumé Evidence is growing that evolutionary dynamics can impact biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships. However the nature of such impacts remains poorly understood. Here we use a modelling approach to compare random communities, with no trait evolutionary fine-tuning, and co-adapted communities, where traits have co-evolved, in terms of emerging biodiversity-productivity, biodiversity-stability and biodiversity-invasion relationships. Community adaptation impacted most BEF relationships, sometimes inverting the slope of the relationship compared to random communities. Biodiversity-productivity relationships were generally less positive among co-adapted communities, with reduced contribution of sampling effects. The effect of community-adaptation, though modest regarding invasion resistance, was striking regarding invasion tolerance: co-adapted communities could remain very tolerant to invasions even at high diversity. BEF relationships are thus contingent on the history of ecosystems and their degree of community adaptation. Short-term experiments and observations following recent changes may not be safely extrapolated into the future, once eco-evolutionary feedbacks have taken place.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 1461-023x ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 2906
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Auteur Ben Lamine, Y.; Pringault, O.; Aissi, M.; Ensibi, C.; Mahmoudi, E.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, M.N.
Titre Environmental controlling factors of copepod communities in the Gulf of Tunis (south western Mediterranean Sea) Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Cahiers de Biologie Marine
Volume 56 Numéro 3 Pages 213-229
Mots-Clés Competition; Copepod diversity; multivariate analysis; Salinity; Temperature; Top-down control
Résumé The copepod community structure and the distribution of the main groups of zooplankton were studied along an inshore-offshore gradient in the Gulf of Tunis during the rainy and dry seasons of 2007-2008. Hydrological parameters were also measured to assess the potential role of abiotic and biotic factors in the distribution of copepod species. The copepod community in the Gulf of Tunis comprises 86 species dominated by Paracalanus parvus, Clausocalanus lividus, Centropages kroyeri and Acartia clausi. Time had a greater influence than space (horizontal and vertical gradients) in shaping the copepod community structure with a significant influence of the seasons; winter (cold and rainy) resulted in hydrological conditions that were strongly different from those observed in summer (warm and dry). These hydrological differences were concomitant with changes in the community structure, with a high copepod diversity observed in winter while the summer period was characterized by a low specific richness and the dominance of a few species, Centropages kroyeri and Paracalanus parvus along the inshore-offshore gradient and Paracalanus aculeatus along the vertical. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that temperature, salinity and to a lesser extent chlorophyll a were the most important environmental factors structuring the copepod community. Interestingly, temperature and salinity showed a negative significant correlation with copepod specific richness. Competition with grazers (cladoceran) as well as top down control by predators (chaetognaths and siphonophors) were also identified as key factors for the copepod community structure.
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Volume de collection Numéro de collection Edition
ISSN 0007-9723 ISBN Médium
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Notes WOS:000358550200003 Approuvé pas de
Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1324
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Auteur Bertrand, S.; Joo, R.; Smet, C.A.; Tremblay, Y.; Barbraud, C.; Weimerskirch, H.
Titre Local depletion by a fishery can affect seabird foraging Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication Revue Abrégée Journal of Applied Ecology
Volume 49 Numéro 5 Pages 1168-1177
Mots-Clés competition for prey; fishery management; guano-producing seabirds; Peruvian anchovy
Résumé Long-term demographic studies show that seabird populations may suffer from competition with fisheries. Understanding this process is critical for the implementation of an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAF). Existing studies rely mostly on indirect clues: overlaps between seabird foraging and fishing areas, comparing fish catches by seabirds and vessels. The study is based on a GPS tracking experiment performed in 2007 on one of the main guano-producing seabird species, the Peruvian booby, breeding on an island near the major port for anchovy landings in Peru. The fishery, which is entirely monitored by a Vessel Monitoring System, opened the day we began the tracking experiment, providing a unique opportunity to examine the day-to-day effects of an intense fishing activity on seabird foraging behaviour. We observed a significant increase in the range of the daily trips and distances of the dives by birds from the colony. This increase was significantly related to the concomitant fishing activity. Seabirds progressively became more segregated in space from the vessels. Their increased foraging effort was significantly related to the growing quantity of anchovy removals by the fishery. In addition, daily removals by the fishery were at least 100 times greater than the daily anchovy requirement of the seabird colonies. We conclude that seabirds needed to forage farther to cope with the regional prey depletion created by the intensive fishing behaviour of this open access fishery. Synthesis and applications. We show that the foraging efficiency of breeding seabirds may be significantly affected by not only the global quantity, but also the temporal and spatial patterns of fishery removals. Together with an ecosystem-based definition of the fishery quota, an EAF should limit the risk of local depletion around breeding colonies using, for instance, adaptive marine protected areas.
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ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 172
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Auteur Boyd, C.; Grunbaum, D.; Hunt, G.L.; Punt, A.E.; Weimerskirch, H.; Bertrand, S.
Titre Effects of variation in the abundance and distribution of prey on the foraging success of central place foragers Type Article scientifique
Année 2017 Publication Revue Abrégée J. Appl. Ecol.
Volume 54 Numéro 5 Pages 1362-1372
Mots-Clés allocation; ecosystem; fisheries; Guanay Cormorant; guano-producing seabirds; Humboldt Current system; impact; indicators; marine spatial planning; Peruvian Booby; Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum; predator-prey interactions; prey availability; seabird competition with fisheries; small pelagic fish; Sula variegata; upwelling system; variability
Résumé 1. Seabirds and pinnipeds are vulnerable to reductions in prey availability, especially during the breeding season when spatial constraints limit their adaptive capacity. There are growing concerns about the effects of fisheries on prey availability in regions where large commercial fisheries target forage fish. 2. For breeding seabirds and pinnipeds, prey availability depends on a combination of abundance, accessibility, patchiness and distance from the colony. An understanding of the aspects of prey availability that determine foraging success is essential for the design of effective management responses. 3. We used a mechanistic individual-based foraging model based on observed data for two sea-bird species, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata and Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum, to simulate the foraging patterns of seabirds feeding on schooling fish. We ran the model over simulated prey fields representing eight possible combinations of high or low prey abundance, shallow or deep prey, and broadly distributed or spatially concentrated prey. 4. The results highlight the importance of the accessibility of prey. Depth distribution was the primary factor determining modelled foraging success for both species, followed by abundance, and then spatial configuration. 5. Synthesis and applications. The individual-based foraging model provides a spatially explicit framework for assessing the effects of fisheries on the foraging success of seabirds and other central place foragers, and for evaluating the potential effectiveness of marine-protected areas and other fisheries management strategies for safeguarding central place foragers in dynamic ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that broad-scale fisheries management strategies that maintain forage fish above critical biomass levels are essential, but may need to be supplemented by targeted actions, such as time-area closures, when environmental conditions lead to low prey abundance or reduce prey accessibility for seabirds or pinnipeds of conservation concern. The individual-based foraging model is adaptable and could be reconfigured for application to other species and systems.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Médium
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 2192
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