||Bisphenol A (BPA) effects and removal by an alkaliphilic chlorophyta, Picocystis, were assessed. BPA at low concentrations (0–25 mg L−1) did not inhibit the Picocystis growth and photosynthesis during 5 days of exposure. At higher BPA concentrations (50 and 75 mg L−1), the growth inhibition did not exceed 43%. The net photosynthetic activity was dramatically reduced at high BPA concentrations while, the PSII activity was less affected. The exposure to increasing BPA concentrations induced an oxidative stress in Picocystis cells, as evidenced by increased malondialdehyde content and the over-expression of antioxidant activities (ascorbate peroxydase, gluthation-S-transferase and catalase). Picocystis exhibited high BPA removal efficiency, reaching 72% and 40% at 25 and 75 mg L−1 BPA. BPA removal was ensured mainly by biodegradation/biotransformation processes. Based on these results, the extended tolerance and the high removal ability of Picocystis make her a promising specie for use in BPA bioremediation.