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Auteur Le Manach, F.; Chaboud, C.; Copeland, D.; Cury, P.; Gascuel, D.; Kleisner, K.M.; Standing, A.; Sumaila, U.R.; Zeller, D.; Pauly, D.
Titre (up) European Union’s Public Fishing Access Agreements in Developing Countries Type Article scientifique
Année 2013 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS ONE
Volume 8 Numéro 11 Pages
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Résumé The imperative to increase seafood supply while dealing with its overfished local stocks has pushed the European Union (EU) and its Member States to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zones of other countries through various types of fishing agreements for decades. Although European public fishing agreements are commented on regularly and considered to be transparent, this is the first global and historical study on the fee regime that governs them. We find that the EU has subsidized these agreements at an average of 75% of their cost (financial contribution agreed upon in the agreements), while private European business interests paid the equivalent of 1.5% of the value of the fish that was eventually landed. This raises questions of fisheries benefit-sharing and resource-use equity that the EU has the potential to address during the nearly completed reform of its Common Fisheries Policy.
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Numéro d'Appel LL @ pixluser @ collection 269
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Auteur HOLON, F.; MOUQUET, N.; BOISSERY, P.; BOUCHOUCHA, M.; DELARUELLE, G.; TRIBOT, A.-S.; DETER, J.
Titre (up) Fine-Scale Cartography of Human Impacts along French Mediterranean Coasts: A Relevant Map for the Management of Marine Ecosystems Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée Plos One
Volume 10 Numéro 8 Pages
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Résumé Ecosystem services provided by oceans and seas support most human needs but are threatened by human activities. Despite existing maps illustrating human impacts on marine ecosystems, information remains either large-scale but rough and insufficient for stakeholders (1 km² grid, lack of data along the coast) or fine-scale but fragmentary and heterogeneous in methodology. The objectives of this study are to map and quantify the main pressures exerted on near-coast marine ecosystems, at a large spatial scale though in fine and relevant resolution for managers (one pixel = 20 x 20 m). It focuses on the French Mediterranean coast (1,700 km of coastline including Corsica) at a depth of 0 to 80 m. After completing and homogenizing data presently available under GIS on the bathymetry and anthropogenic pressures but also on the seabed nature and ecosystem vulnerability, we provide a fine modeling of the extent and impacts of 10 anthropogenic pressures on marine habitats. The considered pressures are man-made coastline, boat anchoring, aquaculture, urban effluents, industrial effluents, urbanization, agriculture, coastline erosion, coastal population and fishing. A 1:10 000 continuous habitat map is provided considering 11 habitat classes. The marine bottom is mostly covered by three habitats: infralittoral soft bottom, Posidonia oceanica meadows and circalittoral soft bottom. Around two thirds of the bottoms are found within medium and medium high cumulative impact categories. Seagrass meadows are the most impacted habitats. The most important pressures (in area and intensity) are urbanization, coastal population, coastal erosion and man-made coastline. We also identified areas in need of a special management interest. This work should contribute to prioritize environmental needs, as well as enhance the development of indicators for the assessment of the ecological status of coastal systems. It could also help better apply and coordinate management measures at a relevant scale for biodiversity conservation.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1441
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Auteur Mouillot, D.; Villeger, S.; Scherer-Lorenzen, M.; Mason, N.W.H.
Titre (up) Functional Structure of Biological Communities Predicts Ecosystem Multifunctionality Type Article scientifique
Année 2011 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS One
Volume 6 Numéro 3 Pages
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 633
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Auteur Bertrand, S.; Joo, R.; Fablet, R.
Titre (up) Generalized Pareto for Pattern-Oriented Random Walk Modelling of Organisms’ Movements Type Article scientifique
Année 2015 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS ONE
Volume 10 Numéro 7 Pages e0132231
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Résumé How organisms move and disperse is crucial to understand how population dynamics relates to the spatial heterogeneity of the environment. Random walk (RW) models are typical tools to describe movement patterns. Whether Lévy or alternative RW better describes forager movements is keenly debated. We get around this issue using the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). GPD includes as specific cases Normal, exponential and power law distributions, which underlie Brownian, Poisson-like and Lévy walks respectively. Whereas previous studies typically confronted a limited set of candidate models, GPD lets the most likely RW model emerge from the data. We illustrate the wide applicability of the method using GPS-tracked seabird foraging movements and fishing vessel movements tracked by Vessel Monitoring System (VMS), both collected in the Peruvian pelagic ecosystem. The two parameters from the fitted GPD, a scale and a shape parameter, provide a synoptic characterization of the observed movement in terms of characteristic scale and diffusive property. They reveal and quantify the variability, among species and individuals, of the spatial strategies selected by predators foraging on a common prey field. The GPD parameters constitute relevant metrics for (1) providing a synthetic and pattern–oriented description of movement, (2) using top predators as ecosystem indicators and (3) studying the variability of spatial behaviour among species or among individuals with different personalities.
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ isabelle.vidal-ayouba @ collection 1325
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Auteur Bailleul, D.; Ollier, S.; Lecomte, J.
Titre (up) Genetic Diversity of Oilseed Rape Fields and Feral Populations in the Context of Coexistence with GM Crops Type Article scientifique
Année 2016 Publication Revue Abrégée PLoS One
Volume 11 Numéro 6 Pages e0158403
Mots-Clés canola brassica-napus; flow; herbicide resistance; long-distance dispersal; persistence; plant; pollen-dispersal; seed; volunteer canola; western canada
Résumé Despite growing concern about transgenes escaping from fields, few studies have analysed the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem over several years. Accurate information about the dynamics and relationship of the genetic diversity of crops in an agroecosystem is essential for risk assessment and policies concerning the containment of genetically modified crops and their coexistence with crops grown by conventional practices. Here, we analysed the genetic diversity of oilseed rape plants from fields and feral populations over 4 years in an agricultural landscape of 41 km(2). We used exact compatibility and maximum likelihood assignment methods to assign these plants to cultivars. Even pure lines and hybrid cultivar seed lots contained several genotypes. The cultivar diversity in fields reflected the conventional view of agroecosystems quite well: that is, there was a succession of cultivars, some grown for longer than others because of their good performance, some used for one year and then abandoned, and others gradually adopted. Three types of field emerged: fields sown with a single cultivar, fields sown with two cultivars, and unassigned fields (too many cultivars or unassigned plants to reliably assign the field). Field plant diversity was higher than expected, indicating the persistence of cultivars that were grown for only one year. The cultivar composition of feral populations was similar to that of field plants, with an increasing number of cultivars each year. By using genetic tools, we found a link between the cultivars of field plants in a particular year and the cultivars of feral population plants in the following year. Feral populations on road verges were more diverse than those on path verges. All of these findings are discussed in terms of their consequences in the context of coexistence with genetically modified crops.
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Langue English Langue du Résumé Titre Original
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Numéro d'Appel MARBEC @ alain.herve @ collection 1646
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