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Auteur Tew-Kai, E.; Marsac, F.
Titre Patterns of variability of sea surface chlorophyll in the Mozambique Channel : a quantitative approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2009 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 77 Numéro 1-2 Pages 77-88
Mots-Clés Climate forcing; Mesoscale; Mozambique Channel; Quantitative approach; Seasonal variability; Sea Surface chlorophyll
Résumé We analyse the coupling between sea surface chlorophyll concentration (CC) and the physical environment in the Mozambique Channel (MZC) using statistical models. Seasonal and interannual patterns are studied along with the role of mesoscale dynamics on enhancement and concentration processes for phytoplankton. We use SeaWifs data for CC and two other remotely sensed data sets, TMMI for sea surface temperature (SST) and merged altimetry products for sea level anomaly and geostrophic current. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) on SSC and SST show strong seasonality and partition the MZC into three distinct sub-areas. The chlorophyll variability is mostly driven by seasonality, but more in the North (10 degrees S-16 degrees S) and South (24 degrees S-30 degrees S), and explains respectively 64% and 82% of the CC variance. In the Central part (16 degrees S-24 degrees S), the seasonal signal has less influence (60% variance). There, complex EOFs on Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) highlight the role of mesoscale activity (i.e. eddies and filament structures) in the spatial distribution of chlorophyll. Five mesoscale descriptors (shear, stretch, vorticity, deformation and eddy kinetic energy) are derived from the altimetry data to quantify the eddies-related physical patterns in the central region of the MZC. We use generalized Additive Models to explain the effect of those features on phytoplankton enhancement. The best model fit (r(2) = 0.73) includes shear, stretch, vorticity and the latitude-longitude interaction as eddies are well structured in space. Cyclonic eddies associated with negative vorticity are conductive to phytoplankton enhancement by the effect of upwelling in the core notably during the spin-up phase. The interaction between eddies generate strong frontal mixing favourable to the production and aggregation of organic matter. The mesoscale activity is also affected by interannual variability with consequences on CC. We highlight a substantial reduction of the SLA pattern in 2000-2001 when the SOI positive phase is peaking (Nina-type pattern). The strong relationship between mesoscale eddies and SOI suggests that primary productivity in the MZC is also under the influence of distant forcing at a basin scale.
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Auteur Hattab, T.; Lasram, F.B.R.; Albouy, C.; Romdhane, M.S.; Jarboui, O.; Halouani, G.; Cury, P.; Le Loc'h, F.
Titre An ecosystem model of an exploited southern Mediterranean shelf region (Gulf of Gabes, Tunisia) and a comparison with other Mediterranean ecosystem model properties Type Article scientifique
Année 2013 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 128 Numéro Pages 159-174
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Résumé Abstract In this paper, we describe an exploited continental shelf ecosystem (Gulf of Gabes) in the southern Mediterranean Sea using an Ecopath mass-balance model. This allowed us to determine the structure and functioning of this ecosystem and assess the impacts of fishing upon it. The model represents the average state of the ecosystem between 2000 and 2005. It includes 41 functional groups, which encompass the entire trophic spectrum from phytoplankton to higher trophic levels (e.g., fishes, birds, and mammals), and also considers the fishing activities in the area (five fleets). Model results highlight an important bentho-pelagic coupling in the system due to the links between plankton and benthic invertebrates through detritus. A comparison of this model with those developed for other continental shelf regions in the Mediterranean (i.e., the southern Catalan, the northern-central Adriatic, and the northern Aegean Seas) emphasizes similar patterns in their trophic functioning. Low and medium trophic levels (i.e., zooplankton, benthic molluscs, and polychaetes) and sharks were identified as playing key ecosystem roles and were classified as keystone groups. An analysis of ecosystem attributes indicated that the Gulf of Gabes is the least mature (i.e., in the earliest stages of ecosystem development) of the four ecosystems that were compared and it is suggested that this is due, at least in part, to the impacts of fishing. Bottom trawling was identified as having the widest-ranging impacts across the different functional groups and the largest impacts on some commercially-targeted demersal fish species. Several exploitation indices highlighted that the Gulf of Gabes ecosystem is highly exploited, a finding which is supported by stock assessment outcomes. This suggests that it is unlikely that the gulf can be fished at sustainable levels, a situation which is similar to other marine ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Auteur Perry, R.I.; Cury, P.; Brander, K.; Jennings, S.; Mollmann, C.; Planque, B.
Titre Sensitivity of marine systems to climate and fishing: Concepts, issues and management responses Type Article scientifique
Année 2010 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 79 Numéro Pages 427-435
Mots-Clés change; climate; Communities; ecosystems; fisheries; Fishing; management; Populations; variability
Résumé Modern fisheries research and management must understand and take account of the interactions between climate and fishing, rather than try to disentangle their effects and address each separately. These interactions are significant drivers of change in exploited marine systems and have ramifications for ecosystems and those who depend on the services they provide. We discuss how fishing and climate forcing interact on individual fish, marine populations, marine communities, and ecosystems to bring these levels into states that are more sensitive to (i.e. more strongly related with) climate forcing. Fishing is unlikely to alter the sensitivities of individual finfish and invertebrates to climate forcing. It will remove individuals with specific characteristics from the gene pool, thereby affecting structure and function at higher levels of organisation. Fishing leads to a loss of older age classes, spatial contraction, loss of sub-units, and alteration of life history traits in populations, making them more sensitive to climate variability at interannual to interdecadal scales. Fishing reduces the mean size of individuals and mean trophic level of communities, decreasing their turnover time leading them to track environmental variability more closely. Marine ecosystems under intense exploitation evolve towards stronger bottom-up control and greater sensitivity to climate forcing. Because climate change occurs slowly, its effects are not likely to have immediate impacts on marine systems but will be manifest as the accumulation of the interactions between fishing and climate variability – unless threshold limits are exceeded. Marine resource managers need to develop approaches which maintain the resilience of individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems to the combined and interacting effects of climate and fishing. Overall, a less-heavily fished marine system, and one which shifts the focus from individual species to functional groups and fish communities, is likely to provide more stable catches with climate variability and change than would a heavily fished system. Crown Copyright (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Auteur Travers, M.; Watermeyer, K.; Shannon, L.J.; Shin, Y.-J.
Titre Changes in food web structure under scenarios of overfishing in the southern Benguela : comparison of the Ecosim and OSMOSE modelling approaches Type Article scientifique
Année 2010 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 79 Numéro Pages 101-111
Mots-Clés and; Benguela; ecosystem; Fishing; Food; function; indicators; model; structure; Trophic; upwelling; web
Résumé Ecosystem models provide a platform allowing exploration into the possible responses of marine food webs to fishing pressure and various potential management decisions. In this study we investigate the particular effects of overfishing on the structure and function of the southern Benguela food web, using two models with different underlying assumptions: the spatialized, size-based individual-based model, OSMOSE, and the trophic mass-balance model, Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE). Starting from the same reference state of the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem during the 1990s, we compare the response of the food web to scenarios of overfishing using these two modelling approaches. A scenario of increased fishing mortality is applied to two distinct functional groups: i) two species of Cape hake, representing important target predatory fish, and ii) the forage species anchovy, sardine and redeye. In these simulations, fishing mortality on the selected functional groups is doubled for 10 years, followed by 10 years at the initial fishing mortality. We compare the food web states before the increase of fishing mortality, after 10 years of overfishing and after a further 10 years during which fishing was returned to initial levels. In order to compare the simulated food web structures with the reference state, and between the two modelling approaches, we use a set of trophic indicators: the mean trophic level of the community and in catches, the trophic pyramid (biomass per discrete trophic level), and the predatory/forage fish biomass ratio. OSMOSE and EwE present globally similar results for the trophic functioning of the ecosystem under fishing pressure: the biomass of targeted species decreases whereas that of their potential competitors increases. The reaction of distant species is more diverse, depending on the feeding links between the compartments. The mean trophic level of the community does not vary enough to be used for assessing ecosystem impacts of fishing, and the mean trophic level in the catch displays a surprising increase due to the short period of overfishing. The trophic pyramids behave in an unexpected way compared to trophic control theory. because at least two food chains with different dynamics are intertwined within the food web. We emphasize the importance of biomass information at the species level for interpreting dynamics in aggregated indicators, and we highlight the importance of competitive groups when looking at ecosystem functioning under fishing disturbance. Finally, we discuss the results within the scope of differences between models, in terms of the way they are formulated, spatial dimensions, predation formulations and the representation of fish life cycles.
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Auteur Gasche, L.; Gascuel, D.; Shannon, L.; Shin, Y.-J.
Titre Global assessment of the fishing impacts on the Southern Benguela ecosystem using an EcoTroph modelling approach Type Article scientifique
Année 2012 Publication (up) Revue Abrégée Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 90 Numéro 1 Pages 1-12
Mots-Clés Ecosystem indicators; EcoTroph; Fishing impact; Overfishing; southern Benguela; Trophic modelling
Résumé We show that the EcoTroph model based on trophic spectra is an efficient tool to build ecosystem diagnoses of the impact of fishing. Using the Southern Benguela case study as a pretext, we present the first thorough application of the model to a real ecosystem. We thus review the structure and functioning of EcoTroph and we introduce the user to the steps that should be followed, showing the various possibilities of the model while underlining the most critical points of the modelling process. We show that EcoTroph provides an overview of the current exploitation level and target factors at the ecosystem scale, using two distinct trophic spectra to quantify the fishing targets and the fishing impact per trophic level. Then, we simulate changes in the fishing mortality, facilitating differential responses of two groups of species within the Southern Benguela ecosystem to be distinguished. More generally, we highlight various trends in a number of indicators of the ecosystem's state when increasing fishing mortality and we show that this ecosystem is moderately exploited, although predatory species are at their MSY. Finally, trophic spectra of the fishing effort multipliers EMSY and E(0.1) are proposed as tools for monitoring the ecosystem effects of fishing.
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