Sustainable aquacultures

, par Vidal Ayouba Isabelle

Representatives : Emmanuelle Roque (Ifremer) and Eric Fouilland (CNRS)

BACKGROUND

Since 2008, the European policy increasingly supports aquaculture sectors (shellfish, fish and algae farming) for both social and economic reasons, but also for patrimonial reasons.
The challenge is to develop a socially acceptable sector, economically viable and environmentally respectful (limited inputs and outputs). This issue raises scientific questions regarding biology (environmental stress, lower recruitment, performance and yield variability), technology (control and process regulation, waste treatment) or regulation (access to places).

GOALS

  • To optimize the use of natural resources : hosting capacity of the production areas, alternative sources for animal oils and flour, promotion of co-products, reduction of inputs to reduce the ecological footprint of aquaculture

  • To improve farm products and production systems : selection of productivity and health traits, minimization of genetic contamination of wild populations, reduction and recycling of waste by bioremediation and ecological intensification
  • 
To understand and model the spatial and temporal dynamics of : (i) the mortality of exploited shellfish to anticipate periods of excessive mortality and minimize the spread of epidemics and (ii) the larval oysters recruitment to improve the supply of spat

  • Research on farming, selection and extraction of microalgae methods for the production of bio-energy and high-value molecules.

OBJECTS AND MAIN AREAS OF STUDY

  • Geographic areas : the Mediterranean, French overseas territories, southern sites (Tunisia, Vietnam, Indian Ocean) and North Africa

  • Models : Dicentrarchus labrax, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Orbicular batfish, Scianopsocellatus, Crassostrea gigas, Ostrea edulis, Mytilus galloprovincialis, model and coming from natural environment microalgae (eg Senedesmus sp Nanochloris sp).

APPROACHES

  • Data : observations in situ and in vitro, punctual and permanent ; biometric, nutritional, genetic, physiological, behavioral and environmental data (microbiological, biochemical, chemical, physical, hydrodynamic), surveys

  • Methods : plant and animal experiments through controlled systems or in situ, design of pilot systems, experimental gene selection, high speed sequencing, sequence alignment

  • Modeling : shellfish production model, hydrodynamic modeling, dynamic energy budget model (DEB), statistical models.


LES PROJETS




MARBEC MARine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation, is a research unit which includes the staff of 4 organizations: IRD, IFREMER, UM and CNRS. Its objective is the study of marine biodiversity in lagoon coastal and offshore ecosystems, at different integration levels, molecular, individual, population and community aspects and the way humans use this biodiversity.